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Amniotic fluid phthalate levels and male fetal gonad function.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature264835
Source
Epidemiology. 2015 Jan;26(1):91-9
Publication Type
Article
Date
Jan-2015
Author
Morten Søndergaard Jensen
Ravinder Anand-Ivell
Bent Nørgaard-Pedersen
Bo A G Jönsson
Jens Peter Bonde
David M Hougaard
Arieh Cohen
Christian H Lindh
Richard Ivell
Gunnar Toft
Source
Epidemiology. 2015 Jan;26(1):91-9
Date
Jan-2015
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adult
Amniotic Fluid - chemistry
Case-Control Studies
Cryptorchidism - epidemiology
Denmark - epidemiology
Diethylhexyl Phthalate - analysis
Environmental Exposure - statistics & numerical data
Female
Gonadal Steroid Hormones - analysis
Humans
Hydrocortisone - analysis
Hypospadias - epidemiology
Immunoassay
Infant, Newborn
Insulin - analysis
Leydig Cells
Linear Models
Logistic Models
Male
Mass Spectrometry
Phthalic Acids - analysis
Pregnancy
Proteins - analysis
Abstract
Prenatal exposure to phthalates may pose a threat to human male reproduction. However, additional knowledge about the in vivo effect in humans is needed, and reported associations with genital abnormalities are inconclusive. We aimed to study prenatal di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) and diisononyl phthalate (DiNP) exposure in relation to cryptorchidism, hypospadias, and human fetal Leydig cell function.
We studied 270 cryptorchidism cases, 75 hypospadias cases, and 300 controls. Second-trimester amniotic fluid samples were available from a Danish pregnancy-screening biobank (n = 25,105) covering 1980-1996. We assayed metabolites of DEHP and DiNP (n = 645) and steroid hormones (n = 545) by mass spectrometry. We assayed insulin-like factor 3 by immunoassay (n = 475) and analyzed data using linear or logistic regression.
Mono(2-ethyl-5-carboxypentyl) phthalate (5cx-MEPP, DEHP metabolite) was not consistently associated with cryptorchidism or hypospadias. However, we observed an 18% higher (95% confidence interval [CI] = 5%-33%) testosterone level, and a 41% lower (-56% to -21%) insulin-like factor 3 level in the highest 5cx-MEPP tertile compared with the lowest. Mono(4-methyl-7-carboxyheptyl) phthalate (7cx-MMeHP, DiNP metabolite) showed elevated odds ratio point estimates for having cryptorchidism (odds ratio = 1.28 [95% CI = 0.80 to 2.01]) and hypospadias (1.69 [0.78 to 3.67]), but was not consistently associated with the steroid hormones or insulin-like factor 3.
Data on the DEHP metabolite indicate possible interference with human male fetal gonadal function. Considering the DiNP metabolite, we cannot exclude (nor statistically confirm) an association with hypospadias and, less strongly, with cryptorchidism.
PubMed ID
25384265 View in PubMed
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Association between organic dietary choice during pregnancy and hypospadias in offspring: a study of mothers of 306 boys operated on for hypospadias.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature120122
Source
J Urol. 2013 Mar;189(3):1077-82
Publication Type
Article
Date
Mar-2013
Author
Jeppe Schultz Christensen
Camilla Asklund
Niels E Skakkebæk
Niels Jørgensen
Helle Raun Andersen
Troels Munch Jørgensen
Lars Henning Olsen
Anette Pernille Høyer
Jan Moesgaard
Jørgen Thorup
Tina Kold Jensen
Author Affiliation
Department of Growth and Reproduction, Rigshospitalet, Copenhagen, Denmark.
Source
J Urol. 2013 Mar;189(3):1077-82
Date
Mar-2013
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Denmark - epidemiology
Diet - adverse effects
Female
Humans
Hypospadias - epidemiology - etiology - surgery
Incidence
Infant, Newborn
Life Style
Male
Maternal Exposure - adverse effects
Odds Ratio
Pregnancy
Questionnaires
Risk factors
Urologic Surgical Procedures, Male - methods
Abstract
The etiology of hypospadias is poorly understood. Exposure to pesticides has been considered a risk factor, although findings are inconsistent. Diet constitutes a significant exposure route for pesticides, and pesticide residues are more frequently reported in conventional than organic food products. We examined the association between organic dietary choice during pregnancy and presence of hypospadias in the offspring.
Mothers of 306 boys operated on for hypospadias were frequency matched for geography and child birth year to 306 mothers of healthy boys in a case-control study. Telephone interviews were conducted regarding demographic and lifestyle factors, including intake and organic choice of selected food items (milk, dairy products, egg, fruit, vegetables and meat). Logistic regression models were constructed for dietary variables, and odds ratios were calculated controlling for maternal age, body mass index and alcohol consumption.
Overall organic choice of food items during pregnancy was not associated with hypospadias in the offspring. However, frequent current consumption of high fat dairy products (milk, butter) while rarely or never choosing the organic alternative to these products during pregnancy was associated with increased odds of hypospadias (adjusted OR 2.18, 95% CI 1.09-4.36).
This large case-control study of boys operated on for hypospadias suggests an association between hypospadias in the offspring and the mother not choosing the organic alternative, and having a high current intake of nonorganic butter and cheese. This finding could be due to chemical contamination of high fat dairy products. However, general lifestyle and health behavior related to choosing organic alternatives may also explain the finding.
Notes
Comment In: J Urol. 2013 Mar;189(3):798-923246851
PubMed ID
23036983 View in PubMed
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The birth rate of hypospadias in the Turku area in Finland.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature194388
Source
APMIS. 2001 Feb;109(2):96-100
Publication Type
Article
Date
Feb-2001
Author
H E Virtanen
M. Kaleva
A M Haavisto
I M Schmidt
M. Chellakooty
K M Main
N E Skakkebaek
J. Toppari
Author Affiliation
Department of Physiology, University of Turku, Finland. helena.virtanen@utu.fi
Source
APMIS. 2001 Feb;109(2):96-100
Date
Feb-2001
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Birth rate
Finland - epidemiology
Humans
Hypospadias - epidemiology
Infant, Newborn
Male
Neonatal Screening
Population Surveillance
Prospective Studies
Abstract
Reports based on national registers of congenital malformations have suggested that the birth rate of hypospadias has increased during the last few decades. Register-based information may, however, have pitfalls because of changes in diagnostics, reporting accuracy and registration system. The aim of this study was to determine the current birth rate of hypospadias in Turku University Central Hospital (TUCH) in Finland. This was a prospective study on live-born boys born in TUCH from 1997 to 1999. In the total birth cohort (n=5,798) as well as in a special subcohort group (n=1,505) 0.3% of boys had hypospadias. Only one scrotal hypospadias was found in a boy who had a chromosomal anomaly. Other hypospadias were glandular or coronal. No increase was found in the birth rate of hypospadias when comparing our result with register-based data of boys born in Finland during the years 1970 to 1986 and surgically treated for hypospadias by the age of 8 years. No difference was found either from malformation register-based data concerning the nationwide birth rate of hypospadias during the years 1993 to 1998. Due to differences in national registration systems between countries, prospective studies with equal assessment criteria are needed in order to make reliable international comparisons.
PubMed ID
11399000 View in PubMed
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Case control study of hypospadias, based on registry information.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature60035
Source
Teratology. 1988 Jul;38(1):45-50
Publication Type
Article
Date
Jul-1988
Author
B. Källén
Author Affiliation
Department of Embryology, University of Lund, Sweden.
Source
Teratology. 1988 Jul;38(1):45-50
Date
Jul-1988
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Contraception Behavior
Delivery, Obstetric
Female
Humans
Hypospadias - epidemiology
Infant, Newborn
Infertility, Female - epidemiology
Male
Parity
Pilot Projects
Pregnancy
Pregnancy Complications
Prospective Studies
Registries
Smoking
Socioeconomic Factors
Sweden
Abstract
With the aid of data in the Swedish Medical Birth Registry for infants with hypospadias and controls, a number of variables were compared. Records of infants born in 1982-1983 (188 cases and 376 matched controls) contained information on involuntary infertility, previous spontaneous and induced abortions, use of oral contraceptives or a remaining IUD at conception, smoking in early pregnancy, occupation in early pregnancy, family situation, and diagnoses given during pregnancy and at delivery, including information on caesarean section and vacuum extraction. Among all variables studied, only one group of statistically significant differences appeared: women whose sons had hypospadias more often than controls had a diagnosis of weak contractions, a higher rate of induced deliveries, and also a higher rate of caesarean sections. The finding of a higher caesarean section rate in infants with hypospadias was verified in a separate study of 1,736 hypospadic infants delivered in 1973-1981 and compared with all births in Sweden during that period. No difference in the rate of vacuum extractions was seen. This finding is interpreted as a result of an abnormality of the fetal-placental-maternal organism interaction, perhaps also disturbing the early pregnancy and increasing the risk for hypospadias.
PubMed ID
3175939 View in PubMed
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Congenital anomalies in American Indians of British Columbia.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature237609
Source
Genet Epidemiol. 1986;3(6):455-67
Publication Type
Article
Date
1986
Author
R B Lowry
N Y Thunem
M. Silver
Source
Genet Epidemiol. 1986;3(6):455-67
Date
1986
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
British Columbia
Cleft Lip - epidemiology
Cleft Palate - epidemiology
Congenital Abnormalities - epidemiology - genetics
Female
Heart Defects, Congenital - epidemiology
Humans
Hypospadias - epidemiology
Indians, North American
Infant, Newborn
Male
Registries
Abstract
Birth prevalences of congenital anomalies in the American Indians of British Columbia are compared with those of the total British Columbia population. This study is based on data from the British Columbia Health Surveillance Registry for a 16-year period (1966-1981) judged to be the most reliable reporting period in the 35-year history of the registry. The overall congenital anomaly frequency is lower in Indians than in the general population (45 versus 60 per 1,000 livebirths). The Indian rates for individual anomalies are lower than the corresponding general population rates with the exception of orofacial clefting and congenital heart defects. Defects of the central nervous system in both populations are comparable. There is a striking paucity of hypospadias, other anomalies of the genital organs and foot deformities in Indian males. It is suggested that the differences in the congenital anomaly rates between the American Indians and the non-Indians of British Columbia may reflect genetic differences between the two groups, but differences in ascertainment and infant mortality probably also play a role.
PubMed ID
3803914 View in PubMed
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Congenital malformations among infants whose mothers had gestational diabetes or preexisting diabetes.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature47758
Source
Early Hum Dev. 2001 Mar;61(2):85-95
Publication Type
Article
Date
Mar-2001
Author
A. Aberg
L. Westbom
B. Källén
Author Affiliation
The Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Lund University Hospital, S-221 85, Lund, Sweden. anders.aberg@gyn.lu.se
Source
Early Hum Dev. 2001 Mar;61(2):85-95
Date
Mar-2001
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Abnormalities - epidemiology
Cleft Lip - epidemiology
Cleft Palate - epidemiology
Diabetes Complications
Diabetes Mellitus - epidemiology
Diabetes, Gestational - complications - epidemiology
Digestive System Abnormalities
Female
Heart Defects, Congenital - epidemiology
Humans
Hypospadias - epidemiology
Limb Deformities, Congenital - epidemiology
Male
Polydactyly - epidemiology
Pregnancy
Registries
Spine - abnormalities
Sweden - epidemiology
Abstract
BACKGROUND: Diabetes type 1 is associated with an increased risk for infant congenital malformations. It is debated whether this is true also at gestational diabetes. AIMS: To study occurrence of congenital malformations in infants whose mothers had preexisting or gestational diabetes. STUDY DESIGN: A register study covering over 1.2 million Swedish births in 1987-1997 based on the Swedish health registries. SUBJECTS: We identified from the Medical Birth Registry 3864 infants born of women with preexisting diabetes and 8688 infants born of women with gestational diabetes. OUTCOMES MEASURES: Congenital malformations identified in the Medical Birth Registry, the Registry of Congenital Malformations, and the Hospital Discharge Registry. The rates of congenital malformations among these infants was compared with the population rates. RESULTS: At preexisting diabetes, the total malformation rate was 9.5% while the rate at gestational diabetes was similar to the population rate, 5.7%. At preexisting diabetes, certain conditions were more common than expected: orofacial clefts, cardiovascular defects, oesophageal/intestinal atresia, hypospadias, limb reduction defects, spine malformations, and polydactyly. For some of these conditions, an excess was found also for infants whose mothers had gestational diabetes. Infants with multiple malformations were in excess at preexisting diabetes but not at gestational diabetes but the specific type of malformations involved were similar in the two diabetes groups. CONCLUSIONS: It is suggested that in the group of gestational diabetes exists a subgroup with an increased risk for a diabetes embryopathy, perhaps due to preexisting but undetected diabetes type 2.
PubMed ID
11223271 View in PubMed
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Cryptorchidism and hypospadias in sons of gardeners and farmers.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature33587
Source
Environ Health Perspect. 1998 Dec;106(12):793-6
Publication Type
Article
Date
Dec-1998
Author
I S Weidner
H. Møller
T K Jensen
N E Skakkebaek
Author Affiliation
Department of Growth and Reproduction, Copenhagen University Hospital, Copenhagen, Denmark.
Source
Environ Health Perspect. 1998 Dec;106(12):793-6
Date
Dec-1998
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adolescent
Agriculture
Case-Control Studies
Child
Cryptorchidism - epidemiology - etiology
Denmark - epidemiology
Female
Humans
Hypospadias - epidemiology - etiology
Male
Occupational Exposure
Pesticides - adverse effects
Pregnancy
Prenatal Exposure Delayed Effects
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Risk assessment
Abstract
Cryptorchidism and hypospadias have been related to prenatal estrogen exposure in animal models. Some chemicals used in farming and gardening have been shown to possess estrogenic and other hormone-disrupting effects. Earlier studies have indicated increased risks of urogenital malformations in the sons of pesticide appliers. In the present study, parental occupation in the farming and gardening industry among 6,177 cases of cryptorchidism, 1,345 cases of hypospadias, and 23,273 controls, born live from 1983 to 1992 in Denmark, was investigated in a register-based case-control study. A significantly increased risk of cryptorchidism but not hypospadias was found in sons of women working in gardening (adjusted odds ratio = 1.67; 95% confidence interval, 1.14-2.47). The risks were not increased in sons of men working in farming or gardening. The increased risk of cryptorchidism among sons of female gardeners could suggest an association with prenatal exposure to occupationally related chemicals.
PubMed ID
9831539 View in PubMed
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Declining sperm counts and increasing incidence of testicular cancer and other gonadal disorders: is there a connection?

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature24040
Source
Ir Med J. 1993 May;86(3):85-6
Publication Type
Article
Date
May-1993

51 records – page 1 of 6.