About 95% of insulin-dependent diabetics can be managed satisfactorily with one or a combination of the follwoing insulin preparations: single-peak U-100 beef-pork NPH, Lente, and Regular. Complications of insulin therapy are commonly attributable to poor regulation of insulin dosage, irregular or excessive food intake, or unusual physical activity. One form of hyperglycemia is induced by insulin. Generalized allergic reactions to insulin sometimes require desensitization. Insulin-resistant patients are treated with a glucocorticoid.
In the treatment of childhood type 1 diabetes, being aware of the parents' fear of hypoglycemia is important, since the parents' fear may influence the management of treatment and the children's blood glucose regulation. The availability of proper instruments to assess the parents' fear of hypoglycemia is essential. Thus, the aim of this study was to examine the psychometric properties of the Hypoglycemia Fear Survey - Parent version (HFS-P).
In a Norwegian population-based sample, 176 parents representing 102 children with type 1 diabetes (6-15 years old) completed the HFS-P, comprising a 15-item worry subscale and a 10-item behavior subscale. We performed exploratory and confirmatory factor analysis and further analysis of the scales' construct validity, content validity and reliability.
The Norwegian version of the HFS-P had an acceptable factor structure and internal consistency for the worry subscale, whereas the structure and internal consistency of the behavior subscale was more questionable. The HFS-P subscales were significantly correlated (from moderately to weakly) with symptoms of emotional distress, as measured by the Hopkins Symptom Checklist - 25 items. The mothers scored higher than fathers on both HFS-P subscales, but the difference was not statistically significant for the worry subscale.
The HFS-P worry subscale seems to be a valid scale for measuring anxiety-provoking aspects of hypoglycemia, and the validity of the HFS-P behavior subscale needs to be investigated further.
A clinical trial of the accuracy and treatment experience of the Dexcom G4 sensor (Dexcom G4 system) and Enlite sensor (guardian REAL-time system) tested simultaneously in ambulatory patients with type 1 diabetes.
Continuous glucose monitoring (CGM) is a tool widely used in the treatment of patients with type 1 diabetes. The purpose of the current study was to evaluate whether accuracy and patient treatment satisfaction differ between the Enlite™ (Medtronic MiniMed, Inc., Northridge, CA) and Dexcom(®) (San Diego, CA) G4 PLATINUM CGM sensors.
Thirty-eight ambulatory patients with type 1 diabetes used the Dexcom G4 and Enlite sensors simultaneously for a minimum of 4 and maximum of 6 days. Patients measured capillary glucose levels with a HemoCue(®) (Ängelholm, Sweden) system six to 10 times a day. In addition, two inpatient studies were performed between Days 1-3 and 4-6.
The mean absolute relative difference (MARD) in blood glucose for the Dexcom G4 was significantly lower (13.9%) than for the Enlite sensor (17.8%) (P
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Determine prevalence of diabetes, and describe use of blood glucose lowering (BGL) drugs and glycemic control in Norwegian nursing homes.
In this cross-sectional study we collected details of BGL drugs, capillary blood glucose measurements (CBGM) in the last four weeks and HbA1c measurements in the last 12 months from the medical records of patients with diabetes, within a population of 742 long-term care patients from 19 randomly selected nursing homes in Western Norway. Descriptive statistics were applied, and Pearson's chi-squared (P=0.05) or non-overlapping 95% confidence intervals were interpreted as significant effects.
116 patients (16%) had diabetes, 100 of these gave informed consent and medical data were available. BGL treatment was as follows: (1) insulin only (32%), (2) insulin and oral antidiabetics (OADs) (15%), (3) OADs only (27%) and (4) no drugs (26%). Patients with cognitive impairment were less likely to receive medical treatment (P=0.04). CBGM and HbA1c measurements were performed for 73% and 77% of patients, respectively. Mean HbA1c was 7.3% (57 mmol/mol), 46% of patients had an HbA1c
Sucrose induces high postprandial glucose and insulin responses. In vitro studies suggest that berries may reduce the digestion and absorption of sucrose and thereby suppress postprandial glycemia, but the evidence in humans is limited.
We investigated the effects of sucrose ingested with blackcurrants (Ribes nigrum) and lingonberries (Vaccinium vitis-idaea) on postprandial glucose, insulin, and free fatty acid responses.
Twenty healthy women participated in a randomized, controlled, crossover meal study. They consumed whole blackcurrants or lingonberries (150 g served as purées) or blackcurrant or lingonberry nectars (300 mL), each with 35 g added sucrose. Sucrose alone (35 g in 300 mL water) was used as a reference. Blood samples were collected at 0, 15, 30, 45, 60, 90, and 120 min.
In comparison with sucrose alone, ingestion of sucrose with whole berries resulted in reduced glucose and insulin concentrations during the first 30 min and a slower decline during the second hour and a significantly improved glycemic profile. Berries prevented the sucrose-induced late postprandial hypoglycemic response and the compensatory free fatty acid rebound. Nearly similar effects were observed when sucrose was consumed with berry nectars. The improved responses were evident despite the higher content of available carbohydrate in the berry and nectar meals, because of the natural sugars present in berries.
Blackcurrants and lingonberries, as either whole berries or nectars, optimize the postprandial metabolic responses to sucrose. The responses are consistent with delayed digestion of sucrose and consequent slower absorption of glucose.
Women with type 1 diabetes face several challenges during pregnancy, childbirth and in relation to breastfeeding. It is therefore of utmost importance to consider their need for specific support, early postpartum as well as in daily life after discharge from maternity care. Few studies have investigated these aspects of healthcare. The aim of this study was to explore experiences after childbirth regarding breastfeeding, glycemic control, support and well-being in women with type 1 diabetes.
A hermeneutic reflective life world research approach was used in this qualitative study. Data was gathered through audio-recorded focus group discussions and individual interviews with 23 women with type 1 diabetes, 6-24 months after childbirth. After verbatim transcription, the text was analyzed in order to identify themes of meaning and a conclusive interpretation of the explored phenomenon.
Experiences of extraordinary exposure challenged the women with type 1 diabetes in their transition to early motherhood. The exposure included a struggle with breastfeeding, although with a driving force to succeed. Everyday life was filled with uncertainty and unpredictability related to one's own unstable glycemic control and the women down-prioritized their own needs in favor of the child. A feeling of being disconnected from professional care further contributed to the experiences of extraordinary exposure.
In early motherhood women with type 1 diabetes have a great need for support in managing daily life postpartum, which requires contemporary approaches to overlap insufficient linkage between health care professionals in maternity and child health care, and diabetes care.
To examine and assess (1) the internal consistency and validity of a Danish translation of the Diabetes Distress Scale (DDS17) among adults with Type 1 diabetes mellitus, (2) the properties of the brief version of DDS17 and (3) cut points for the DDS17.
Cross-sectional survey of 2419 adults with Type 1 diabetes mellitus. Validated scales and questions measured diabetes distress (DDS17), diabetes empowerment (DES-SF), healthy diet, physical activity, self-rated health (SF-12) and quality of life (WHOQoL-BREF). An electronic patient record provided information about glycaemic control (HbA(1c)). We examined internal consistency, construct validity, subscale construction and cut points for determining clinically relevant diabetes distress, as well as two- and four-item brief versions of the DDS17.
The DDS17 had a Cronbach's alpha of 0.92; subscale alphas were 0.83-0.89. A four-factor division into subscales was appropriate and the division corresponded closely to the four domains described in the development of the DDS17. The DDS17 correlated well with relevant measures; higher distress was correlated with low diabetes empowerment, low quality of life, unhealthy diet, not being physically active, poor glycaemic control and low scores on the mental component score of the SF-12. A two-item brief scale performed as well as a four-item version. The relationship between DDS17 and outcomes did not suggest distinct cut points for DDS17.
Our results provide support for the use of this Danish adaptation of the DDS17 for assessing psychosocial distress among adults with Type 1 diabetes mellitus.
The increased all-cause mortality in patients with chronic diabetic foot ulcers cannot fully be explained by traditional cardiovascular risk factors. The significance of heart-rate-corrected QT (QTc) prolongation, a finding often seen in these patients, is unknown. Recently, the importance of metabolic control and hypoglycaemia has been discussed. The aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of different HbA1c levels and QTc prolongation on all-cause mortality in the high-risk population of patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus and foot ulcers.
All patients with type 2 diabetes, younger than 80 years, visiting our diabetes foot unit, with a foot ulcer duration >4 weeks, were screened for participation. Patients on dialysis were excluded. Patients were grouped according to HbA1c level and QTc time = or > 440 ms.
Patients (n = 214, median age 69.1 years) were grouped according to HbA1c level (HbA1c 8.9% [>74 mmol/mol] n = 63). Baseline characteristics, including use of potential hypoglycaemic drugs, were similar between groups. During the 8 years of follow-up 151 patients died (70.6%) and HbA1c
Children participating in longitudinal type 1 diabetes prediction studies were reported to have less severe disease at diabetes diagnosis. Our aim was to investigate children who from birth participated in the Diabetes Prediction in Skåne (DiPiS) study for metabolic status at diagnosis and then continued to be followed for 2 yr of regular clinical care.
Children, followed in DiPiS before diagnosis, were compared to children in the same birth cohort, who did not participate in follow-up. Metabolic status, symptoms at diagnosis as well as hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) and doses of insulin at 3, 6, 12, and 24 months after diagnosis were compared.
Children, followed in DiPiS and diagnosed at 2-12 yr of age, had 0.8% (9?mmol/mol) lower HbA1c at diagnosis than those who were not followed (p?=?0.006). At diagnosis, fewer DiPiS children had symptoms (p?=?0.014) and ketoacidosis at diagnosis were reduced (2% compared to 18%, p?=?0.005). During regular clinical care, HbA1c levels for the DiPiS children remained lower both at 12 (0.4% (4?mmol/mol); p?=?0.009) and 24 months (0.8% (9?mmol/mol) p ?