The purpose of this study was to analyse the association of ambulatory blood pressure (ABP) to left ventricular mass (LVM) in a population aged over 64 years and to describe the level of ABP in subjects with and without left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH) in older age.
ABP measurement and echocardiography for calculation of LVM were assessed in 490 inhabitants (mean age 70.7 years, range 64-87 years) of a small town in southwestern Finland who were able to visit an outpatient clinic. Explanatory factors associated with LVM were assessed with linear regression analysis. LVH was defined as calculated LVM-index values exceeding 150 g/m2 in men and 120 g/m2 in women adopted from the Framingham Study.
Systolic ABP was significantly associated with LVM. No correlation between diastolic ABP and LVM was found. Other factors independently related to LVM were gender, body mass index and age. The prevalence of echocardiographic LVH was 22%. Subjects with LVH had markedly higher systolic ABP levels than those without LVH (mean (SD) 24-h ABP: 132(16)/75(8) mmHg vs. 123(13)/75(8) mmHg).
Systolic ABP is associated with LVM in older people. In addition, systolic ABP is superior to diastolic ABP in relation to LVM in the aged.
OBJECTIVE: To study blood pressure and echocardiographically determined left ventricular mass in children born to mothers who had been hypertensive during the pregnancy and to assess the influence of a maternal factor for hypertension on blood pressure and left ventricular mass. METHODS: Blood pressure was measured and M-mode echocardiography was performed in 42 children (aged 10.6-16.4 years) born to mothers who had been hypertensive during the pregnancy. For comparison, a control group of 17 children born after a normotensive pregnancy was used. RESULTS: Children born to mothers who had had a hypertensive pregnancy and who showed sustained hypertension during a follow-up, had higher systolic (P
The aim of this study was to assess echocardiographically the occurrence of cardiac abnormalities in patients with acute reactive arthritis (ReA). Eighteen consecutive adult patients with acute ReA were studied by the use of two-dimensionally guided M-mode and Doppler echocardiography. Aortic or mitral regurgitation were both detected in one of the patients. Mild to moderate left ventricular dilatation was observed in five patients, in four of whom the duration of acute ReA was over 6 months. In four patients, the ratio of peak early and peak late transmitral filling velocities was decreased. No patient had echocardiographic signs of myocarditis or pericardial effusion. In conclusion, no major structural cardiac alterations were detected. Mild valvular disease or mild to moderate left ventricular dilatation was observed in a quarter of the patients. Echocardiographic evaluation may be warranted if the acute ReA persists or has a prolonged course but is not recommended for routine use.
The objective of the study was to determine the relationship between exercise systolic blood pressure (ESBP), during bicycle ergometry, and echocardiographically determined left ventricular structure in rural and urban Canadian men of Icelandic descent. The study was cross-sectional in design. The settings were urban Winnipeg and the rural Interlake District in the province of Manitoba, Canada. Subjects were adult male volunteers from families of wholly Icelandic descent. The subjects were 30 to 60 years of age and had supine blood pressure or = 200 mm Hg) and left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH) was not significantly different in the two groups. In all but one individual LVH was classified as eccentric hypertrophy. In both urban and rural subjects with exaggerated ESBP, left ventricular mass index (LVMI) was greater than in those subjects without exaggerated ESBP. The LVMI correlated with ESBP at the highest workloads (> or = 150 W). Multivariate analysis of all subjects showed that cardiac index, ESBP, body mass index, and low exercise heart rate were predictive of LVMI. There was no significant difference in prevalence of ESBP or LVH between urban and rural Manitobans of Icelandic descent. However, LVMI levels were lower, and values for ESBP greater, in the rural group compared with the urban group. Within each of the two groups there was a positive association between ESBP and LVMI; hence, the study supports findings of our previous investigation showing evidence of early target organ effects in normotensive men with an exaggerated ESBP.
Lund University, Department of Clinical Sciences, Malmö, Social Medicine and Global Health, Skåne University Hospital, Jan Waldenströms gata 35, 205 02 Malmö, Sweden; University of Gothenburg, The Sahlgrenska Academy, Department of Public Health and Community Medicine/Primary Health Care, Box 454, 405 30 Göteborg, Sweden. Electronic address: email@example.com.
Risk factors for acute myocardial infarction (AMI) are known to cluster and to be differently distributed in men and women. The aim of this study was to sex-specifically explore clusters of acknowledged AMI risk factors by factor analysis, and to study whether such clusters are associated with left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH), used as a subclinical measure of CHD.
In 2001-2005, 2328 subjects (30-74 years) were randomly selected from two municipalities in Sweden (participation-rate 76%) and were assessed with regard to cardiovascular risk factors; 852 participants also had an echocardiographic examination performed.
Factor analysis identified three identical factors in men and women. WHR, HOMA-ir, systolic blood pressure, and ApoB/ApoA1 loaded significantly on the principal "metabolic factor", leisure-time physical activity and self-rated health loaded significantly on the "vitality factor", and smoking and alcohol consumption loaded significantly on the "addiction factor". The metabolic factor was associated with LVH in both men (P
Echocardiographically determined left ventricular (LV) mass predicts adverse cardiovascular events in the general population. We have assessed the correlates of LV mass in a population-based study focusing on lifestyle and salt intake.
A random sample of 120 persons born in 1954 was invited; 93 (42 men) entered the study. The subjects' physical activity and alcohol, tobacco, and coffee consumption were quantified by 2-month dairy follow-up, and sodium intake was quantified by 7-day food records. Blood pressure was averaged for casual cuff measurements made 2 months apart. LV mass was determined by M-mode echocardiography, and stroke volume was determined by Doppler. Hematocrit and serum insulin were measured. In multiple linear regression analysis, LV mass was related positively and independently (P
The purpose of this study was to measure the frequency of left ventricular (LV) hypertrophy in old age. Random subjects born in 1904, 1909, and 1914 (n = 501), and 76 born in 1920 to 1935 were studied. All subjects underwent clinical and echocardiographic investigation. An electrocardiogram was obtained in 449 subjects. Complete data for calculation of LV mass corrected for body size were available in 422 of the studied subjects (73%). LV hypertrophy was defined as calculated LV mass exceeding either an internal standard of the Helsinki Aging Study, earlier published limits from the Framingham Heart Study, or criteria from Devereux et al. LV wall thickness and mass were positively related to age. Hypertrophy was present in both sexes, the rate even exceeding 70% in the oldest cohort aged 85 to 86 years using the Framingham and Devereux limits. LV hypertrophy (LV mass exceeding defined limits after correction for body height) was significantly and independently related to age, systolic blood pressure, body mass index, and mitral regurgitation. A sustained apex beat, third heart sound, and electrocardiographic changes were significantly more frequent in the group with echocardiographic hypertrophy, although with considerable overlapping. The fourth heart sound was unrelated to hypertrophy. Use of age-independent criteria result in an extremely high prevalence of LV hypertrophy in old age. This is partly due to age-related diseases increasing LV mass, but also partly to an independent effect of age. The usefulness of clinical signs for detecting LV hypertrophy is limited in old age.
Eastern Finns have higher risk of coronary heart disease (CHD) and carotid intima-media thickness than western Finns although current differences in CHD risk factors are minimal. Left ventricular (LV) mass and diastolic function predict future cardiovascular events but their east-west differences are unknown. We examined the association of eastern/western baseline origin with LV mass and diastolic function.
The study population included 2045 subjects of the Cardiovascular Risk in Young Finns Study with data from the baseline survey (1980) and the latest follow-up (2011) when echocardiography was performed at the age of 34-49 years.
Subjects with eastern baseline origin had in 2011 higher LV mass (139±1.0 vs. 135±1.0 g, p=0.006) and E/e'-ratio indicating weaker LV diastolic function (4.86±0.03 vs. 4.74±0.03, p=0.02) than western subjects. Results were independent of age, sex, area of examination and CHD risk factors such as blood pressure and BMI (LV mass indexed with height: p
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate presence and severity of cardiac disease in individuals with chronic diabetic foot ulcers using echocardiography. METHOD: Eighty consecutive patients with chronic foot ulcers attending the multidisciplinary diabetes foot clinic at Helsingborg Hospital underwent clinical examination, toe blood pressure measurement and a standard echocardiographic examination. RESULTS: Sixty-nine percent of the patients had a history of myocardial infarction and/or hypertension and/or heart failure; 78% had signs of left ventricular dysfunction and/or left ventricular hypertrophy and/or diastolic dysfunction; 76% of the patients without a history of cardiovascular disease had signs of cardiac dysfunction on echocardiography. CONCLUSION: Cardiac dysfunction is a common occurrence present in patients with chronic diabetic foot ulcers, even in those without known cardiac disease or hypertension. Echocardiography may be recommended as a screening procedure in the management of diabetic patients with chronic foot ulcers. The present study supports the view that diabetic chronic foot ulcers ought to be seen as a sign of cardiac disease, although further research is needed to elucidate this issue.