As part of the North Karelia Project a community-based intervention programme to reduce salt consumption was initiated in 1979. The aim of this three-year Salt Project was to evaluate the feasibility and effects of salt reduction in the population. Cross-sectional random population samples, aged 14 to 65 years, were examined both in North Karelia and the reference community in 1979 and 1982. The surveys included among other measurements 24-hour urine collection for Na and K excretion, a salt use index based on reported salt use and a knowledge index concerning salt and health. Changes in the salt intake level were very small. In men Na excretion increased slightly in North Karelia and stayed the same in the reference area. The Na/K ratio in North Karelian men increased significantly. The mean Na excretion level decreased slightly in women in both areas. The reduction in the Na/K ratio in North Karelian women and the decrease in the salt use index in women in both areas were significant. Further analyses showed that in both areas a significant reduction in Na excretion was found but only among normotensive women. There were no changes in the knowledge concerning salt. The feasibility of salt intake reduction was low partly due to insufficient environmental changes.
In the cross-sectional population study of 411 subjects aged 35-64 years and longitudinal 5.5-year follow-up of 157 aged 20-54 years, a relationship was examined between pulse blood flow to the cerebral vessels, their tone as assessed by rheoencephalography and resistance to arterial hypertension, coronary heart disease, and brain vascular lesions. The proportion of healthy persons (without the above-mentioned diseases) was shown to be larger if the pulse blood flow to the cerebral vessels was higher and their tone was lower. In the longitudinal study, the probability to remain healthy was demonstrated to be increased with elevated pulse flow to the cerebral vessels.
With global aging population, age-related cognitive decline becomes epidemic. Lifestyle-related factor is one of the key preventative measures. Dietary pattern analysis which considers dietary complexity has recently used to examine the linkage between nutrition and cognitive function. A priori approach defines dietary pattern based on existing knowledge. Results of several dietary pattern scores were summarized. The heterogeneity of assessment methods and outcome measurements lead to inconsistent results. Posteriori approach derives a dietary pattern independently of the existing nutrition-disease knowledge. It showed a dietary pattern abundant with plant-based food, oily fish, lower consumption of processed food, saturated fat, and simple sugar which appears to be beneficial to cognitive health. Despite inconclusive evidence from both approaches, diet and exercise, beneficial for other diseases, remains to be the two key modifiable factors for cognitive function. Large-scale prospective studies in multiethics population are required to provide stronger evidence in the future.
Almost 30% of hypertension among Canadians may be attributed to excess dietary sodium.
We examined the average sodium intake of Canadians aged 30 years and over, with and without hypertension, by age, sex and diabetes status using 24-hour recall data from the 2004 Canadian Community Health Survey, Cycle 2.2, Nutrition. We compared absolute (crude) average sodium intake levels of those with and without hypertension to the 2009 Canadian Hypertension Education Program (CHEP) guidelines and adjusted average sodium intake between those with and without hypertension.
Both those with and without diagnosed hypertension display average sodium intakes well above the 1500 mg/day recommended by the 2009 CHEP guidelines (2950 mg/day and 3175 mg/day, respectively). After confounding adjustment, those with hypertension have significantly higher average sodium intake (p = .0124). Stratified subgroup analyses found the average sodium intake among those with hypertension was higher for men between 30 and 49 years old (p = .0265), women between 50 and 69 years old (p = .0083) and those without diabetes (p = .0071) when compared to their counterparts without hypertension.
Better approaches are needed to reduce sodium intake in hypertension patients, as well as the general population.
Questionnaire survey of 934 residents of various regions of the European part of the USSR and the results of the experimental impact of health education media under polyclinical conditions showed that awareness of alcohol-related risk could be achieved only due to doctor's assistance.
Overweight and obesity are growing problems both in Canada and around the world. Obesity is associated with a number of chronic diseases including type 2 diabetes and CVD, which puts a tremendous burden on the health care systems in place. The present study sought to investigate whether there were differences in the effectiveness of three low-fat, hypo- and isoenergetic diets differing in protein:carbohydrate ratio, low protein (LP, 1 g protein:4 g carbohydrate), normal protein (NP, 1 g protein:2 g carbohydrate) or high protein (HP, 1 g protein:1 g carbohydrate), on weight loss and markers of the metabolic syndrome (MetS) in overweight women. Subjects were randomly assigned to receive one of three intervention diets, all of which included a 60 min exercise programme three times/week for 12 weeks. Of the total subjects, fifty-four overweight and obese local women with MetS risk factors completed the study. All groups had similar improvements in body weight, insulin sensitivity, lipid profile, blood pressure and fitness. Subjects reported that the NP diet was easier to comply with and achieved better improvements in body fat, waist circumference and waist:hip ratio, and preservation of lean mass compared with the other two diets. In conclusion, energy restriction and exercise both facilitate weight loss in overweight and obese subjects and reduce symptoms of the MetS. A diet with a 1:2 protein:carbohydrate ratio promoted better improvements than either the LP or HP diets, and may be superior in reducing long-term chronic disease risk in this population.
Representative samples of 16-year-old school-children including 126 children from Kaunas and 124 children from Moscow were surveyed by one and the same team consisting of researchers from Kaunas and Moscow. The survey indicated a statistically valid higher level of systolic blood pressure among Kaunas schoolchildren as compared to Moscow schoolchildren of the same age group. Diastolic blood pressure was somewhat higher among Moscow schoolchildren. Moscow schoolchildren smoked statistically valid more often and more intensively. During leisure time boys from Kaunas and girls from Moscow were less physically active. A higher level of arterial blood pressure was found among schoolchildren with high rates of IMT and among non-smoking boys. There was no dependence between the duration of physical activity in leisure time and the level of arterial blood pressure. The established correlations between levels of general risk factors for chronic noninfectious diseases (CNID) among Kaunas and Moscow schoolchildren are important for the evaluation of the effectiveness of CNID integrated prevention programme.