The Cambridge pulmonary hypertension outcome review (CAMPHOR) is the first pulmonary hypertension-specific instrument for the assessment of the patient's perceived symptoms, activity limitations and quality of life (QoL).
To produce and validate a Swedish language version of the CAMPHOR.
Bilingual (n = 5) and lay panels (n = 5) were conducted to translate the CAMPHOR into Swedish. This new questionnaire was then field-tested with 14 patients and finally, it underwent psychometric evaluation by means of a postal validation study involving 38 patients with pulmonary hypertension (PH).
Few problems were experienced in translating the CAMPHOR into Swedish. The field-test participants found the scales relevant, comprehensible and easy to complete. Psychometric analyses showed that the Swedish adaptation was successful. The Swedish CAMPHOR scales had good internal consistency. Cronbach's alpha coefficients were 0.92 for the symptoms scale, 0.92 for activity limitations and 0.95 for the quality of life. Predicted correlations with the Nottingham Health Profile provided evidence of the construct validity of the scales. The Swedish scales also indicated known groups validity.
The Swedish version of the CAMPHOR is a reliable and valid measure of the impact of pulmonary hypertension on the lives of affected patients. It is recommended for use in clinical studies and routine practice in pulmonary hypertension patients.
The Cambridge Pulmonary Hypertension Outcome Review (CAMPHOR) is the first disease-specific instrument for assessing patient-reported symptoms, functioning and quality of life (QoL) in pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH).
To create and validate French-Canadian (FC) and English-Canadian (EC) language versions of the CAMPHOR.
A translation panel (for the FC version) and lay panels (for both versions) were convened to adapt the questionnaires (dual-panel methodology). Subsequently, these new questionnaires were field-tested in 15 FC PAH and 15 EC PAH patients. Finally, in a postal validation study, the new language versions of the CAMPHOR underwent psychometric evaluation in 41 FC and 52 EC PAH patients to test for reliability and validity.
The FC and EC field-test interview participants found the questionnaires relevant, comprehensible and easy to complete. Psychometric analyses showed that the FC and EC adaptations were successful. High test-retest coefficients for the scales after controlling for change in respondent's QoL (FC: 0.92 to 0.96; EC: 0.85 to 0.99) indicated a high degree of reliability. The FC and EC CAMPHOR scales had good internal consistency (Cronbach's alpha coefficients 0.90 to 0.92 and 0.88 to 0.92, respectively). Predicted correlations with the Nottingham Health Profile provided evidence of the construct validity of the FC and EC scales. The FC and EC adaptations also showed known groups validity.
The FC and EC adaptations of the CAMPHOR have been shown to be reliable and valid for measures of health-related QoL and QoL in PAH, and thus can be recommended for use in clinical studies and routine practice in PAH.
Cites: Eur Heart J. 2004 Dec;25(24):2243-7815589643
Cites: Qual Life Res. 2006 Feb;15(1):103-1516411035
Pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) and chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension (CTEPH) are rare diseases with a gradual decline in physical health. Adherence to treatment is crucial in these very symptomatic and life threatening diseases.
To describe PAH and CTEPH patients experience of their self-reported medication adherence, beliefs about medicines and information about treatment.
A quantitative, descriptive, national cohort survey that included adult patients from all PAH-centres in Sweden. All patients received questionnaires by mail: The Morisky Medication Adherence Scale (MMAS-8) assesses treatment-related attitudes and behaviour problems, the Beliefs about Medicines Questionnaire-Specific scale (BMQ-S) assesses the patient's perception of drug intake and the QLQ-INFO25 multi-item scale about medical treatment information.
The response rate was 74% (n?=?325), mean age 66?±?14 years, 58% were female and 69% were diagnosed with PAH and 31% with CTEPH. Time from diagnosis was 4.7?±?4.2 years. More than half of the patients (57%) reported a high level of adherence. There was no difference in the patients' beliefs of the necessity of the medications to control their illness when comparing those with high, medium or low adherence. Despite high satisfaction with the information, concerns about potential adverse effects of taking the medication were significantly related to adherence.
Treatment adherence is relatively high but still needs improvement. The multi-disciplinary PAH team should, together with the patient, seek strategies to improve adherence and prevent concern.
To assess lung function, gas exchange, exercise capacity, and right-sided heart hemodynamics, including pulmonary artery pressure, in patients long term after pneumonectomy.
Among 523 consecutive patients who underwent pneumonectomy for lung cancer between January 1992 and September 2001, 117 were alive in 2006 and 100 were included in the study. During a 1-day period, each patient had complete medical history, chest radiographs, pulmonary function studies, resting arterial blood gas analysis, 6-minute walk test, and Doppler echocardiography.
Most patients (N = 73) had no or only minimal dyspnea. On the basis of predicted values, functional losses in forced expiratory volume in 1 second and forced vital capacity were 38% ± 18% and 31% ± 24%, respectively, and carbon monoxide diffusing capacity decreased by 31% ± 18%. There was a significant correlation between preoperative and postoperative forced expiratory volume in 1 second (P
We determined congruence with published guidelines from the European League Against Rheumatism (EULAR)/EULAR Scleroderma Trials and Research group, for systemic sclerosis (SSc) investigations and treatment practices within the Canadian Scleroderma Research Group (CSRG).
Investigations and medication use for SSc complications were obtained from records of patients with SSc in the CSRG to determine adherence to guidelines for patients enrolled before and after the guidelines were published.
The CSRG database of 1253 patients had 992 patients with SSc enrolled before publication of the guidelines and 261 after. For pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) treatment, there were no differences in use before and after the guidelines, yet annual echocardiograms for PAH screening were done in 95% of patients enrolled before the guidelines and in only 86% of those enrolled after (p 80% with gastroesophageal reflux disease before and after the guidelines. One-quarter with gastrointestinal symptoms were taking prokinetic drugs. For those with past SSc renal crisis, use of angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors was not different before and after the guidelines. For early diffuse SSc
In this column, the authors highlight a medication incident that occurred with Revatio (sildenafil), along with the learnings and recommendations from a previously published ISMP Canada Safety Bulletin. It is well-known to health care practitioners that use of nitroglycerin therapy is contraindicated in patients taking sildenafil (commonly known as Viagra). Many health care practitioners may be unaware that sildenafil is also marketed under the brand name Revatio for treatment of primary pulmonary hypertension or pulmonary hypertension secondary to connective tissue disease. The following incident signals the need to heighten the awareness that Revatio is a brand name for sildenafil.
Pulmonary hypertension (PH) is a serious condition where diagnosis often is delayed due to unspecific symptoms. New methods to diagnose and differentiate PH earlier would therefore be of great value. The aim of this study was therefore to evaluate the relationship between circulating angiogenic and inflammatory biomarkers and various hemodynamic variables in relation to different causes of PH.
Plasma samples from 63 patients at diagnosis were extracted from Lund Cardio Pulmonary Register, separated into pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH, n?=?22), chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension (CTEPH, n?=?15) and left heart disease (LHD) with (n?=?21) and without (n?=?5) PH. Blood samples from eight control subjects devoid of PH were additionally evaluated. Plasma concentrations of angiogenic (PlGF, Tie2, VEGF-A, VEGF-D, bFGF, sFlt-1) and inflammatory (IL-6, IL-8, TNF-a) biomarkers were analysed and related to hemodynamic variables.
The use of appetite suppressants in Europe has been associated with the development of primary pulmonary hypertension (PPH). Recently, fenfluramine appetite suppressants became widely used in the United States but were withdrawn in September 1997 because of concerns over adverse effects.
We conducted a prospective surveillance study on patients diagnosed with pulmonary hypertension at 12 large referral centers in North America. Data collected on patients seen from September 1, 1996, to December 31, 1997, included the cause of the pulmonary hypertension and its severity. Patients with no identifiable cause of pulmonary hypertension were classed as PPH. A history of drug exposure also was taken with special attention on the use of antidepressants, anorexigens, and amphetamines.
Five hundred seventy-nine patients were studied, 205 with PPH and 374 with pulmonary hypertension from other causes (secondary pulmonary hypertension [SPH]). The use of anorexigens was common in both groups. However, of the medications surveyed, only the fenfluramines had a significant preferential association with PPH as compared with SPH (adjusted odds ratio for use > 6 months, 7.5; 95% confidence interval, 1.7 to 32.4). The association was stronger with longer duration of use when compared to shorter duration of use and was more pronounced in recent users than in remote users. An unexpectedly high (11.4%) number of patients with SPH had used anorexigens.
The magnitude of the association with PPH, the increase of association with increasing duration of use, and the specificity for fenfluramines are consistent with previous studies indicating that fenfluramines are causally related to PPH. The high prevalence of anorexigen use in patients with SPH also raises the possibility that these drugs precipitate pulmonary hypertension in patients with underlying conditions associated with SPH.
Many treatment options are now available for patients with idiopathic pulmonary arterial hypertension (IPAH). Data regarding the optimal combination of therapies are lacking, as is consensus on how to assess response to therapy and when to change therapeutic regimens.
To gather the opinions of Canadian pulmonary hypertension (PH) experts regarding standard practice in the care of IPAH patients after therapy is initiated.
Canadian PH physicians were surveyed using short questionnaires to assess their opinions and practices in the care of IPAH patients. A Delphi forecasting approach was used to gain consensus among Canadian physicians on the most important clinical parameters to consider when assessing patients after the initiation of therapy.
Twenty-six of 37 Canadian PH experts who were invited to participate completed the study. All endorsed the use of combination therapy for IPAH patients despite the lack of universal provincial coverage for this approach. By consensus, WHO functional class, 6 min walk distance and hospitalization for right heart failure were the most important clinical parameters. The most highly rated physical examination parameters were jugular venous pressure, peripheral edema, the presence of ascites and body weight.
The overall approach to care of IPAH patients is similar across PH centres in Canada. A limited number of clinical and physical examination parameters were considered to be most important to reassess patients after therapy is initiated. These parameters, along with definition of threshold values, will facilitate the development of standard practice guidelines for IPAH patients in Canada.
Cites: N Engl J Med. 2004 Sep 30;351(14):1425-3615459304