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Achieving cholesterol targets by individualizing starting doses of statin according to baseline low-density lipoprotein cholesterol and coronary artery disease risk category: the CANadians Achieve Cholesterol Targets Fast with Atorvastatin Stratified Titration (CanACTFAST) study.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature145456
Source
Can J Cardiol. 2010 Feb;26(2):80-6
Publication Type
Article
Date
Feb-2010
Author
Ehud Ur
Anatoly Langer
Simon W Rabkin
Cristina-Dana Calciu
Lawrence A Leiter
Author Affiliation
University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC, Canada.
Source
Can J Cardiol. 2010 Feb;26(2):80-6
Date
Feb-2010
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adult
Aged
Canada
Cholesterol, LDL - blood - drug effects
Coronary Artery Disease - blood - etiology - prevention & control
Dose-Response Relationship, Drug
Female
Follow-Up Studies
Heptanoic Acids - administration & dosage
Humans
Hydroxymethylglutaryl-CoA Reductase Inhibitors - administration & dosage
Hypercholesterolemia - blood - complications - drug therapy
Male
Middle Aged
Pyrroles - administration & dosage
Risk factors
Treatment Outcome
Abstract
Despite an increasing body of evidence on the benefit of lowering elevated levels of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), there is still considerable concern that patients are not achieving target LDL-C levels.
The CANadians Achieve Cholesterol Targets Fast with Atorvastatin Stratified Titration (CanACTFAST) trial tested whether an algorithm-based statin dosing approach would enable patients to achieve LDL-C and total cholesterol/high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (TC/HDL-C) ratio targets quickly.
Subjects requiring statin therapy, but with an LDL-C level of 5.7 mmol/L or lower, and triglycerides of 6.8 mmol/L or lower at screening participated in the 12-week study, which had two open-label, six-week phases: a treatment period during which patients received 10 mg, 20 mg, 40 mg or 80 mg of atorvastatin based on an algorithm incorporating baseline LDL-C value and cardiovascular risk; and patients who achieved both LDL-C and TC/HDL-C ratio targets at six weeks continued on the same atorvastatin dose. Patients who did not achieve both targets received dose uptitration using a single-step titration regimen. The primary efficacy outcome was the proportion of patients achieving target LDL-C levels after 12 weeks.
Of 2016 subjects screened at 88 Canadian sites, 1258 were assigned to a study drug (1101 were statin-free and 157 were statin-treated at baseline). The proportion of subjects who achieved LDL-C targets after 12 weeks of treatment was 86% (95% CI 84% to 88%) for statin-free patients and 54% (95% CI 46% to 61%) for statin-treated patients. Overall, 1003 subjects (80%; 95% CI 78% to 82%) achieved both lipid targets.
Algorithm-based statin dosing enables patients to achieve LDL-C and TC/HDL-C ratio targets quickly, with either no titration or a single titration.
Notes
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PubMed ID
20151053 View in PubMed
Less detail

Chitin-glucan fiber effects on oxidized low-density lipoprotein: a randomized controlled trial.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature121000
Source
Eur J Clin Nutr. 2013 Jan;67(1):2-7
Publication Type
Article
Date
Jan-2013
Author
H E Bays
J L Evans
K C Maki
M. Evans
V. Maquet
R. Cooper
J W Anderson
Author Affiliation
Louisville Metabolic and Atherosclerosis Research Center, Louisville, KY, USA.
Source
Eur J Clin Nutr. 2013 Jan;67(1):2-7
Date
Jan-2013
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adult
Anticholesteremic Agents - administration & dosage - adverse effects - therapeutic use
Atherosclerosis - epidemiology - etiology - prevention & control
Body mass index
Chitin - chemistry
Double-Blind Method
Female
Fruit - chemistry
Glucans - chemistry
Humans
Hypercholesterolemia - blood - complications - diet therapy - physiopathology
Lipoproteins, LDL - blood
Male
Middle Aged
Midwestern United States - epidemiology
Olea - chemistry
Ontario - epidemiology
Overweight - complications
Plant Extracts - adverse effects - therapeutic use
Polysaccharides - administration & dosage - adverse effects - therapeutic use
Prebiotics - adverse effects
Risk
Abstract
Elevated oxidized low-density lipoprotein (OxLDL) may promote inflammation, and is associated with increased risk of atherosclerotic coronary heart disease and worsening complications of diabetes mellitus. The primary objective of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of chitin-glucan (CG), alone and in combination with a potentially anti-inflammatory olive oil (OO) extract, for reducing OxLDL in subjects with borderline to high LDL cholesterol (LDL-C) levels.
This 6-week, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study of a novel, insoluble fiber derived from the Aspergillus niger mycelium, CG, evaluated 130 subjects free of diabetes mellitus with fasting LDL-C 3.37-4.92?mmol/l and glucose = 6.94?mmol/l. Participants were randomly assigned to receive CG (4.5?g/day; n=33), CG (1.5?g/day; n=32), CG (1.5?g/day) plus OO extract (135?mg/day; n=30), or matching placebo (n=35).
Administration of 4.5?g/day CG for 6 weeks significantly reduced OxLDL compared with placebo (P=0.035). At the end of study, CG was associated with lower LDL-C levels relative to placebo, although this difference was statistically significant only for the CG 1.5?g/day group (P=0.019). CG did not significantly affect high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, triglycerides, glucose, insulin or F2-isoprostane levels. Adverse events did not substantively differ between treatments and placebo.
In this 6-week study, CG (4.5?g/day) reduced OxLDL, an effect that might affect the risk for atherosclerosis.
Notes
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PubMed ID
22948945 View in PubMed
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[Cholesterol. Statements of the meeting on cholesterol, The Norwegian Medical Association, Oslo 10-12 October 1989]

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature55388
Source
Tidsskr Nor Laegeforen. 1989 Nov 30;109(33):3452-6
Publication Type
Article
Date
Nov-30-1989

Compliance with and efficacy of treatment with pravastatin and cholestyramine: a randomized study on lipid-lowering in primary care.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature72542
Source
J Intern Med. 1998 May;243(5):373-80
Publication Type
Article
Date
May-1998
Author
M. Eriksson
K. Hådell
I. Holme
G. Walldius
T. Kjellström
Author Affiliation
Centre for metabolism and endocrinology, Huddinge University Hospital, Stockholm, Sweden.
Source
J Intern Med. 1998 May;243(5):373-80
Date
May-1998
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adult
Aged
Anticholesteremic Agents - adverse effects - therapeutic use
Cholestyramine - adverse effects - therapeutic use
Female
Humans
Hydroxymethylglutaryl-CoA Reductase Inhibitors - adverse effects - therapeutic use
Hypercholesterolemia - blood - complications - drug therapy
Lipids - blood
Male
Middle Aged
Patient compliance
Pravastatin - adverse effects - therapeutic use
Primary Health Care
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Sex Factors
Sweden
Treatment Outcome
Abstract
OBJECTIVES: Lipid-lowering drugs as 3-hydroxy-3-methyl glutaryl coenzyme A (HMG-CoA) reductase inhibitors and cholestyramine are effective in reducing cardiovascular morbidity both in primary and secondary prevention. Patient compliance is an important determinant of the outcome of therapy. This study was designed to compare compliance with tolerance and lipid-lowering effectiveness of pravastatin and/or cholestyramine in primary care. DESIGN: Nine hundred and eighty nine women and 1047 men were randomized to treatment at 100 primary-care centres in Sweden. After dietary intervention, an eligible patient was randomly assigned to one of four programs of daily treatment: group Q, 16 g cholestyramine, group QP, 8 g cholestyramine and 20 mg pravastatin, group P20, 20 mg pravastatin or group P40, 40 mg pravastatin. RESULTS: In group Q, group QP, group P20 and group P40 the reductions in low density lipoprotein (LDL)-cholesterol were 26%, 36%, 27% and 32%. The dose actually taken was 91-95% of the prescribed for the pravastatin treatment groups and 77-88% for the cholestyramine groups. In the pravastatin and cholestyramine groups 76-78% and 44-53%, respectively, completed the trial. Only 8-27% of the patients reached a serum cholesterol target level of 5.2 mmol L-1. There was no difference in lipid-lowering effect between women and men. CONCLUSION: Pravastatin alone is efficacious and compliance is high, independent of dose. Combined treatment with cholestyramine and pravastatin had a better cholesterol lowering effect (although not statistically significant) than 40 mg pravastatin. Despite this, only 8-27% of the patients actually reached a serum cholesterol level of 5.2 mmol L-1. No unexpected serious adverse events were detected in any of the treatment groups. As predicted, the gastrointestinal disturbances were more common on cholestyramine treatment. These two factors suggest that an increase in the dosage of the HMG-CoA reductase inhibitor may be appropriate. Results from other studies indicate that there also might be other positive effects of statin treatment beyond cholesterol lowering.
PubMed ID
9651560 View in PubMed
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Development of femoral atherosclerosis in hypercholesterolemic patients during treatment with cholestyramine and probucol/placebo: Probucol Quantitative Regression Swedish Trial (PQRST): a status report.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature232758
Source
Am J Cardiol. 1988 Jul 25;62(3):37B-43B
Publication Type
Article
Date
Jul-25-1988
Author
G. Walldius
L A Carlson
U. Erikson
A G Olsson
J. Johansson
J. Mölgaard
S. Nilsson
G. Stenport
L. Kaijser
C. Lassvik
Author Affiliation
King Gustaf V Research Institute, Stockholm, Sweden.
Source
Am J Cardiol. 1988 Jul 25;62(3):37B-43B
Date
Jul-25-1988
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Arteriosclerosis - blood - etiology - prevention & control
Cholestyramine Resin - therapeutic use
Clinical Trials as Topic
Combined Modality Therapy
Drug Therapy, Combination
Female
Femoral Artery
Humans
Hypercholesterolemia - blood - complications - diet therapy - drug therapy
Lipids - blood
Male
Phenols - therapeutic use
Placebos
Probucol - therapeutic use
Random Allocation
Remission Induction
Research Design
Sweden
Abstract
The Probucol Quantitative Regression Swedish Trial is being performed to investigate the effects of probucol on atherosclerosis in the femoral artery. Probucol is combined with cholestyramine and dietary management in hypercholesterolemic patients, and the effects of atheroma developing in the femoral artery will be followed by a quantitative angiographic technique. A randomly selected control group is also being managed by dietary therapy and cholestyramine, but receives placebo instead of probucol. The treatment time in this double-blind trial is 3 years, and femoral angiography is performed yearly. Detailed lipoprotein and apolipoprotein analysis are performed at monthly intervals. The basic study design is described here, and some results from the open prerandomization phase of the study are presented.
PubMed ID
3293415 View in PubMed
Less detail

Difficulties in reaching therapeutic goals for hypertension and dysplipidaemia in patients with type 2 diabetes in general practice.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature261936
Source
Dan Med J. 2013 Dec;60(12):A4740
Publication Type
Article
Date
Dec-2013
Author
Søren Tang Knudsen
Thomas Hammershaimb Mosbech
Birtha Hansen
Else Kønig
Peter Christian Johnsen
Anne-Lise Kamper
Source
Dan Med J. 2013 Dec;60(12):A4740
Date
Dec-2013
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Aged
Angiotensin Receptor Antagonists - therapeutic use
Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitors - therapeutic use
Antihypertensive Agents - therapeutic use
Blood pressure
Cholesterol, LDL - blood
Denmark
Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 - complications - drug therapy
Female
General practice
Humans
Hydroxymethylglutaryl-CoA Reductase Inhibitors - therapeutic use
Hypercholesterolemia - blood - complications - drug therapy
Hypertension - complications - drug therapy - physiopathology
Hypoglycemic agents - therapeutic use
Hypolipidemic Agents - therapeutic use
Male
Middle Aged
Patient Care Planning
Practice Guidelines as Topic
Treatment Outcome
Abstract
National guidelines recommend strict control of blood pressure (BP) and plasma low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL) in type 2 diabetes (T2DM), aiming at a BP = 130/80 mmHg and an LDL concentration = 2.5 mmol/l. Angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors (ACEI) or angiotensin II-receptor blockers (ARB) are recommended as primary antihypertensive therapy (AHT). To which extent these targets are met in Danish primary care is unknown.
This study was based on data from 2,057 patients with T2DM who were randomly selected from 64 general practitioners (GPs) from different regions of Denmark. Data were collected from the GPs' electronic records.
The mean age ± standard deviation was 66.2 ± 11.6 years; 58.7% were male. The mean systolic BP ± standard deviation was 132.6 ± 14.6 mmHg and the mean diastolic BP ± standard deviation was 78.1 ± 9.0 mmHg. 47.7% of the patients met the BP target. 79.5% of the patients were on AHT. 55.1% of the untreated and 46.0% of the treated patients met the BP target. 83.4% of the treated patients received ACEI or ARB. The median LDL was 2.2 (1.7-2.7) mmol/l. 63.7% of the patients met the LDL target. 73.7% of the patients received lipid-lowering therapy. 32.8% of the untreated and 74.4% of the treated patients met the LDL target.
AHT including ACEI and ARB and lipid-lowering therapy are widely used in T2DM in Danish primary care, but only half of the patients are at target for BP and two thirds are at target for LDL. Increased use of diuretics may improve BP control.
This study was funded by a grant from Boehringer Ingelheim, Denmark. The grant covered costs related to data collection, time spent by the general practitioners and data analysis by the DTU.
not relevant.
PubMed ID
24355449 View in PubMed
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Effect of controlled release/extended release metoprolol on carotid intima-media thickness in patients with hypercholesterolemia: a 3-year randomized study.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature10056
Source
Stroke. 2002 Feb;33(2):572-7
Publication Type
Article
Date
Feb-2002
Author
Olov Wiklund
Johannes Hulthe
John Wikstrand
Caroline Schmidt
Sven-Olof Olofsson
Göran Bondjers
Author Affiliation
Wallenberg Laboratory for Cardiovascular Research, Sahlgrenska University Hospital/Sahlgrenska, Gothenburg, Sweden.
Source
Stroke. 2002 Feb;33(2):572-7
Date
Feb-2002
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adrenergic beta-Antagonists - administration & dosage
Blood Pressure - drug effects
Carotid Artery Diseases - complications - diagnosis - prevention & control
Delayed-Action Preparations - administration & dosage
Disease Progression
Double-Blind Method
Drug Administration Schedule
Female
Follow-Up Studies
Heart Rate - drug effects
Humans
Hydroxymethylglutaryl-CoA Reductase Inhibitors - therapeutic use
Hypercholesterolemia - blood - complications - drug therapy
Lipoproteins, LDL Cholesterol - blood
Male
Metoprolol - administration & dosage - analogs & derivatives
Middle Aged
Prospective Studies
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Sweden
Treatment Outcome
Tunica Intima - drug effects - ultrasonography
Tunica Media - drug effects - ultrasonography
Vascular Patency - drug effects
Abstract
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Beta-adrenergic blockade has in several studies been shown to improve survival after myocardial infarction. In animal experiments beta-blockers have also shown an antiatherosclerotic effect. The aim of this study was to test the hypothesis that the beta-blocker metoprolol succinate controlled release/extended release (CR/XL), when given to patients with hypercholesterolemia on concomitant lipid-lowering therapy, provides an additional antiatherosclerotic effect to that provided by the statins, measured as carotid intima-media thickness (IMT). METHODS: We conducted a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, single center trial to compare the effect of metoprolol CR/XL (100 mg once daily) and placebo on the progression of carotid IMT during 36 months of treatment in patients with hypercholesterolemia and signs of early atherosclerosis in the carotid artery. Most patients were prescribed lipid-lowering treatment with statins. RESULTS: A highly significant difference in the progression rate of the composite variable of carotid bulb IMT+common carotid IMT was observed between the metoprolol CR/XL and placebo groups after 1 year of treatment (-0.08 versus -0.01 mm; P=0.004), an effect that was sustained after 3 years of follow-up (-0.06 versus +0.03 mm; P=0.011). The patients had high levels of total cholesterol at randomization: 9.4 mmol/L in the metoprolol CR/XL group and 8.6 mmol/L in the placebo group. During the study the 2 randomization groups were treated with lipid-lowering drugs, mainly statins, to a similar extent, and total cholesterol was reduced to 6.4 mmol/L at end of follow-up in both groups. CONCLUSIONS: The results from the present study in patients with hypercholesterolemia under concomitant lipid-lowering therapy are the first clinical data to show an antiatherosclerotic effect of beta-blockade as additional therapy to statins. The data indicate that statin treatment and treatment with beta-blockers affect different mechanisms in the atherosclerotic process and have additive beneficial effects.
PubMed ID
11823672 View in PubMed
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Greater effect of enhanced pharmacist care on cholesterol management in patients with diabetes mellitus: a planned subgroup analysis of the Study of Cardiovascular Risk Intervention by Pharmacists (SCRIP).

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature180962
Source
Pharmacotherapy. 2004 Mar;24(3):389-94
Publication Type
Article
Date
Mar-2004
Author
Scot H Simpson
Jeffrey A Johnson
Rosemarie S Biggs
Ross T Tsuyuki
Author Affiliation
Institute of Health Economics, Faculty of Medicine and Dentistry, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Canada.
Source
Pharmacotherapy. 2004 Mar;24(3):389-94
Date
Mar-2004
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Aged
Alberta - epidemiology
Anticholesteremic Agents - therapeutic use
Blood Glucose - analysis
Cardiovascular Diseases - epidemiology - prevention & control
Diabetes Complications
Diabetes Mellitus - physiopathology
Fasting - metabolism
Female
Humans
Hypercholesterolemia - blood - complications - prevention & control
Male
Middle Aged
Models, organizational
Patient Education as Topic
Pharmaceutical Services - organization & administration
Professional Role
Research Design
Risk assessment
Risk factors
Saskatchewan - epidemiology
Time Factors
Abstract
To determine the effect of enhanced pharmacist care on cholesterol management in patients with and without diabetes mellitus.
We conducted a planned subgroup analysis of the Study of Cardiovascular Risk Intervention by Pharmacists (SCRIP), a 54-center randomized trial of pharmacist intervention compared with usual care in patients at high risk for cardiovascular events. The patients involved had atherosclerotic disease or diabetes. We compared the effect of pharmacist intervention in patients with and without diabetes. The primary end point was a composite of performing a fasting cholesterol profile, or adding or increasing the dosage of a cholesterol-lowering drug. Secondary end points were individual components of the primary end point and change in 10-year risk for cardiovascular events, using the Framingham risk equation.
Of the 675 patients enrolled in the SCRIP study, 294 (44%) had diabetes. Enhanced pharmacist care had a more beneficial effect on cholesterol management in those with diabetes (odds ratio [OR] 4.8) than without diabetes (OR 2.1), p=0.01. Secondary end points showed similar trends, and reduction in Framingham risk was greater in patients with diabetes than without.
Pharmacist intervention for dyslipidemia appears to have a greater impact in patients with diabetes. Results of this substudy suggest that pharmacists should target this patient group for interventions in cholesterol risk management.
PubMed ID
15040652 View in PubMed
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Impact of the ENHANCE trial on the use of ezetimibe in the United States and Canada.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature104407
Source
Am Heart J. 2014 May;167(5):683-9
Publication Type
Article
Date
May-2014
Author
Lingyun Lu
Harlan M Krumholz
Jack V Tu
Joseph S Ross
Dennis T Ko
Cynthia A Jackevicius
Author Affiliation
Department of Pharmacy Practice and Administration, College of Pharmacy, Western University of Health Sciences, Pomona, CA; Veterans Affairs Greater Los Angeles Healthcare System, Los Angeles, CA.
Source
Am Heart J. 2014 May;167(5):683-9
Date
May-2014
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Anticholesteremic Agents - administration & dosage - economics
Atherosclerosis - blood - epidemiology - prevention & control
Azetidines - administration & dosage - economics - therapeutic use
Canada - epidemiology
Cholesterol - blood
Disease Progression
Dose-Response Relationship, Drug
Drug Costs
Drug Prescriptions - statistics & numerical data
Follow-Up Studies
Humans
Hypercholesterolemia - blood - complications - drug therapy
Prevalence
Retrospective Studies
Time Factors
Treatment Outcome
United States - epidemiology
Abstract
We previously found that the use of ezetimibe increased rapidly with different patterns between the United States (US) and Canada prior to the landmark Ezetimibe and Simvastatin in Hypercholesterolemia Enhance Atherosclerosis Regression (ENHANCE) trial, which was reported in January 2008, and failed to show that the drug slowed the progression of atherosclerosis. What is not known is how practice in the 2 countries changed after the ENHANCE trial. We examined ezetimibe use trends in the US and Canada before and after the reporting of the ENHANCE trial.
We conducted a population-based, retrospective, time-series analysis using the data collected by IMS Health in the US and CompuScript in Canada from January 1, 2002, to December 31, 2009. The main outcome measure was monthly number of prescriptions for ezetimibe-containing products.
The monthly number of ezetimibe prescriptions/100,000 population rose from 6 to 1,082 in the US from November 2002 to January 2008, then significantly declined to 572/100,000 population by December 2009 after the release of the ENHANCE trial, a decrease of 47.1% (P
PubMed ID
24766978 View in PubMed
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Is abdominal body fat distribution a major explanation for the sex difference in the incidence of myocardial infarction? The study of men born in 1913 and the study of women, Göteborg, Sweden.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature55173
Source
Am J Epidemiol. 1992 Feb 1;135(3):266-73
Publication Type
Article
Date
Feb-1-1992
Author
B. Larsson
C. Bengtsson
P. Björntorp
L. Lapidus
L. Sjöström
K. Svärdsudd
G. Tibblin
H. Wedel
L. Welin
L. Wilhelmsen
Author Affiliation
Department of Medicine I, Sahlgrenska Hospital, Gothenburg, Sweden.
Source
Am J Epidemiol. 1992 Feb 1;135(3):266-73
Date
Feb-1-1992
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Abdomen - anatomy & histology
Adipose Tissue - anatomy & histology
Adult
Anthropometry
Body Composition
Body mass index
Coronary Disease - epidemiology - etiology
Follow-Up Studies
Humans
Hypercholesterolemia - blood - complications
Hypertension - complications
Incidence
Middle Aged
Myocardial Infarction - epidemiology
Odds Ratio
Prospective Studies
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Risk factors
Sex Factors
Smoking - adverse effects
Sweden - epidemiology
Abstract
The authors considered whether the difference in body fat distribution between men and women, measured as waist:hip ratio, might explain part of the sex difference in coronary heart disease incidence in prospective population studies of 1,462 women and 792 men. In these studies, conducted in Sweden, men were found to have about four times higher odds for coronary heart disease than women during a 12-year follow-up period (men, 1967 to 1979; women, 1968-1969 to 1980-1981). Controlling for differences in blood pressure, serum cholesterol, smoking, and body mass index only marginally altered the magnitude of the male-female difference. When waist:hip ratio, which predicted coronary heart disease rates in both sexes, was also considered, the sex difference in coronary heart disease risk was significantly reduced and virtually disappeared (odds ratios = 1.0-1.1; nonsignificant). The findings suggest that body fat distribution or a factor highly correlated with waist:hip ratio (genetic, hormonal, or behavioral) may help to explain the sex differences in coronary heart disease.
Notes
Comment In: Am J Epidemiol. 1993 Jan 15;137(2):261-28452133
PubMed ID
1546702 View in PubMed
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27 records – page 1 of 3.