Paramount problems of the development of the assessment of population health risks associated with the chemical exposure in Russia are considered on the ground of critical analysis of reports devoted to methodological issues of the risk assessment and guidelines published since 2010. Causes of the lack in progress of risk assessment are discussed. The information of executed research revealed the significant retardation number of Russian publications devoted to the evidence-based health risk assessment compare to worldwide trend. The analysis of publications according to evidence-based health risk assessment in Russia in 1998 - 2012 demonstrated methodical problems to be leading to the underestimation of the real risk to population’s health. There are demonstrated directions in the renewal of methodology and practice of hygienic standardization on the basis of the risk assessment. The comparative analysis of values of uncertainty factors (modifying factors, conversion factors) used for extrapolation and accepted in different countries and organizations was made. The system of extrapolation coefficients of DNEL (Derive No-Effect Level) is presented. The leading principles of modern toxicology and risk assessment based on strict scientific proofs are showed. Criteria of evidence-based toxicology and risk assessment are presented.Among actual problems which demand their decision there are considered: the assessment of combined action in regulatory toxicology; expansion of spheres of the application of health risk assessment methodology; the improvement ofpreparation and certification of experts in the field of health risk assessment; need of check of dispersion models and their replacement by more modern models; the improvement of exposure assessment with taking into account the international requirements; the assessment of regional exposure factors; expansion of atmospheric air monitoring in all the large cities of Russia.
The paper considers the topical aspects of safe agricultural use of fertilizers. Temporary hygienic standards for the fertilizer levels of toxic elements have been developed: 8 mg/kg for cadmium; 15 mg/kg for lead; 10 mg/kg for arsenic.
The aim of this Canadian study was to assess student behavioral response to disease transmission risk, while identifying high microbial deposition/transmission sites.
A student survey was conducted during October 2009.
The methods included a survey of students to assess use of health services, vaccination compliance, and hygiene along with a microbial analysis of potential transmission sites targeting specific residence buildings on campus.
Results indicated that most students maintained that they were worried about H1N1 and reported making changes in hygienic behavior, with the majority not planning to be vaccinated. The microbial analysis indicated contamination of fomites in co-ed residences to be higher than either male or female student residences.
A consideration of physical space along with behavioral factors is required in order to properly assess risk pathways in the establishment of an evidence-based infection control plan for universities and their contiguous communities.
When the cholera-epidemic came to Copenhagen in the summer of 1853, the doctors had to deal with a lot of problems. What was the disease after all? How did it spread and was it infectious between human beings? The doctors were not sure and did not agree about these questions, but still they had to handle the great epidemic, which nearly after it ended, had killed 5000 people. This article illuminate some of the problems which faced the doctors in their fight against the disease. Copenhagen was a very unhygienic city at that time with no sewerage, bad water supply, very densely built-up, and densely populated. The doctors wanted the politicians to solve these problems, but it was mostly in the field of better hygienic and nutrition, where the doctors could handle the problems themselves, that something happened. The fear of the disease didn't overrule the political and economic agendas and it wasn't clear which measures that had to be done to combat the cholera. The epidemic itself didn't create many changes in Copenhagen.
A system of comprehensive assessment of the level of sanitary-and-epidemiological welfare of educational establishments is proposed for children and adolescents. Its significant criteria have been established. These included the organization of full-value, balanced and rational nutrition at the establishment; organization of the routine and an educational process. The hygienic assessment of the conditions, which was made by the presented scheme, adequately reflects the sanitary epidemiological situation at the orphans' institutions since it takes into account the main index of the sanitary-and-epidemiological welfare--the health status of their children and adolescents. There was a significant correlation between the physical development of orphans and the parameters of sanitary-and-epidemiological welfare at the state institutions for this contingent (r = 0.689). The organization of nutrition at the institution (r = 0.703), the routine and the organization of an educational process (r = 0.689), the volume-planning and designing approaches (r = 0.687), the organization of physical education (r = 0.697), medical support at the institution (r = 0.688) exert the greatest impact on the physical development of children.
The paper gives an algorithm, a procedure for calculation of aircraft noise, and its spread modeling. The performed investigations have provided guidelines that will become the first Russian official guiding document for assessing a risk from aviation noise to human health.
Ambient air pollution by suspended matter is an environmental factor that has the greatest influence on the health status of the majority of the Russian Federation's population. There is extensive epidemiological and clinical evidence suggesting that ambient air pollution by suspended matter and its fine-dispersed fractions PM10 and PM2.5 in particular, poses a serious threat to human health. The existing Russian single and average daily maximum permissible concentrations of suspended matter are not a high risk from this type of ambient air pollution and fail to assess human health damage in full measure. To reduce the concentrations of suspended matter and their action on man is currently the worldwide priority task whose performance will save much money. There is a need to change an air pollution monitoring system (continuous monitoring of fine suspended matter of PM10 and PM2.5), as well as to substantiate and introduce Russian hygienic standards for fine suspended matter (PM10 and PM2.5).
THE THEME: assessment of the influence of socio-economic factors on health and demographic indicators.
population of municipalities of the Voronezh region.
the justification of the system of measures aimed at stabilizing the medical-demographic situation at the regional level.
methods of Health Statistics; questionnaire.
the low socio-economic status of the population is set in the territories, depressed at the level of demographic development. The contribution of socio-economic indicators in health and demographic situation has been determined Reliable cause-effect relationships between health and demographic indicators and the level of socio-economic development of the population have been identified.
BACKGROUND: An association between use of hand hygiene products and health care-associated infection rates was investigated in a large Norwegian university hospital. METHODS: We conducted an ecologic study by combining data from purchasing and admission systems with data from 32 point prevalence surveys (27,248 patients) in 1998-2005. Data on purchase of hand disinfectants and soap, and patient-days, were collected for 20 bed wards similar to those of the prevalence surveys. RESULTS: The prevalence of infections was 7.1%. We found no significant decline in overall infections (P = .19), but use of hand hygiene products significantly increased from 28.5 L per 1000 patients-days in 1998 to 43.3 L per 1000 patient-days in 2005 (P 9% at study start in 1998 (P