The influence of 0.01% sodium dodecyl sulphate, 1.5 and 6.0 M urea and 0.03 M hydrogen peroxide to the NAD(P)H: 2,6 dichlorphenolindophenol reductase activity in livers of adult and old Wistar rats during immobilizing stress was interested. Obtained results indicate that the NADPH--dependent reductase is more resistant to modulating effect of sodium dodecyl sulphate, hydrogen peroxide and urea than NADH-dependent enzyme. The significant decrease of NADH: 2.6 dichlorphenolindophenol reductase sensitivity to the action of all studied modulators occurs in old rats. The similar changes appears in the adult rats liver during stress. The old rats immobilization is accompanied by a decrease of this enzyme activity and the reduction of the influence of all studied modulators to NADH: 2.6 dichlorphenolindophenol reductase as compared with adult ones. These changes in the activity and properties of microsomal NADH: 2,6 dichlorphenolindophenol reductase promote more pronounced decrease of the substrate hydroxylation in the liver of old rats during stress compared to adult ones.
The administration of mercuric chloride (HgCl2), gold compounds, or D-penicillamine to Brown Norway (BN) rats causes a T helper (Th)2 cell-associated autoimmune syndrome characterized by the production of a number of autoantibodies, marked elevation of serum IgE concentration, and tissue injury in the form of a vasculitis and arthritis. We have recently shown that the same compounds in vitro sensitize BN rat peritoneal mast cells for IgE-triggered mediator release and interleukin-4 mRNA production. We wished to test the hypothesis that these agents influence mast cell function via an effect on intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) production/redox balance. Mast cells were obtained from BN rats by peritoneal washout. Incubation with HgCl2, gold compounds or D-penicillamine (the latter only in the presence of copper ions) led to the intracellular production of ROS as shown by the oxidative production of the fluorescent compound 2',7'-dichlorofluorescein. Mast cells were more sensitive than splenocytes to this effect. Direct oxidative stress (exposure to H2O2) produced a similar sensitization for mediator release to that caused by HgCl2. Inhibition of ROS formation by desferrioxamine or catalase diminished the enhancement of IgE-mediated serotonin release caused by HgCl2, as did replenishment of intracellular glutathione. 2-Mercaptoethanol exacerbated the toxicity of HgCl2, perhaps due to the formation of a lipophilic complex that enhanced HgCl2 uptake. Blocking of glutathione synthesis increased the toxicity of HgCl2, but also abolished any sensitizing effect on mediator release. These results support three main predictions of our hypothesis: (1) the compounds known to influence mast cell function all lead to the generation of ROS within the mast cell; (2) direct oxidative stress causes sensitization for mediator release by the mast cell; and (3) modulation of ROS production/redox balance within the mast cell modulates the effects of these compounds on mast cell function. The balance of oxidative/antioxidative influences may play an important role in the modulation of mast cell function, particularly in the context of chemically induced autoimmunity.
The development of drug resistance of tumors is multifactorial and still poorly understood. Some cytotoxic drugs generate free radicals, and, therefore, antioxidant enzymes may contribute to drug resistance. We investigated the levels of manganese superoxide dismutase (Mn SOD), its inducibility, and its protective role against tumor necrosis factor-alpha and cytotoxic drugs (cisplatin, epirubicin, methotrexate, and vindesin) in human pleural mesothelioma (M14K) and pulmonary adenocarcinoma (A549) cells. We also studied other major antioxidant mechanisms in relation to oxidant and drug resistance of these cells. A549 cells were more resistant than M14K cells toward both oxidants (hydrogen peroxide and menadione) and all the cytotoxic drugs tested. M14K cells contained higher basal Mn SOD activity than A549 cells (28.3 +/- 3.4 vs. 1.8 +/- 0.3 U/mg protein), and Mn SOD activity was significantly induced by tumor necrosis factor-alpha only in A549 cells (+524%), but the induction did not offer any protection during subsequent oxidant or drug exposure. Mn SOD was not induced significantly in either of these cell lines by any of the cytotoxic drugs (0.007-2 microM, 48 h) tested when assessed by Northern blotting, Western blotting, or specific activity. A549 cells contained higher catalase activity than M14K cells (7.6 +/- 1.3 vs. 3.6 +/- 0.5 nmol O(2). min(-1). mg protein(-1)). They also contained twofold higher levels of glutathione and higher immunoreactivity of the heavy subunit of gamma-glutamylcysteine synthetase than M14K cells. Experiments with inhibitors of gamma-glutamylcysteine synthetase and catalase supported our conclusion that mechanisms associated with glutathione contribute to the drug resistance of these cells.
In this study, the antioxidant, cytotoxic, and antitumorigenic activities of a fractionated, ethanol extract derived from Rhus verniciflua Stokes (RVS), a plant indigenous to Korea, China, and Japan, were determined. Physicochemical analysis and sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) results indicated that the active component of a Sephadex G-150-fractionated RVS extract (PII fraction) was a copper-containing glycoprotein, possibly a plant laccase. Antioxidant activity of the fractionated RVS extract, observed in both aqueous and lipid in vitro oxidation reactions using 1,1-diphenyl 2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical, site-specific Fenton-reaction deoxyribose, and a model lipid emulsion test system, indicated an affinity for protection against hydroxyl and peroxyl radicals. Cultured mouse brain neurons were protected against glucose oxidase-induced hydroxyl radical in the presence of the fractionated RVS extract (e.g., 58% protection at 4.9 microM and 95% protection with 22.7 microM RVS). RVS was further shown to protect against in vitro Fenton-reaction-induced single- and double-strand scission in supercoiled plasmid DNA. Further testing for bioactivity of the fractionated RVS extract was based on the affinity to inhibit cell proliferation in cultured HeLa and CT-26 tumor cells. The presence of RVS resulted in 70% cell death after 24 h of incubation in both cell lines at a minimum concentration of 2.48 microM RVS. Data demonstrate multiple bioactive chemopreventative properties of a Sephadex G-150-fractionated extract derived from RVS.
Food Safety Intervention Technologies, Eastern Regional Research Center, U.S. Department of Agriculture, Agricultural Research Service, 600 East Mermaid Lane, Wyndmoor, PA 19038, USA. firstname.lastname@example.org
The efficacy of hydrogen peroxide treatment on the inactivation of Salmonella spp. inoculated on the external surface of cantaloupe and honeydew melon was investigated. Salmonella was inoculated onto whole cantaloupe and honeydew melon to a final concentration of 4.65 log(10) CFU/cm(2) and 3.13 log(10) CFU/g, respectively. Inoculated whole melons stored at 5 degrees C for up to 7 days were washed with water, 2.5% and 5% hydrogen peroxide at day 0 and 5. Hydrogen peroxide (2.5% and 5%) treatments of whole melon for 5 min caused a 3 log(10) CFU/cm(2) reduction of the indigenous surface microflora and a 3.0 log(10) CFU/cm(2) reduction in Salmonella spp. on all melon surfaces. The efficacy of the hydrogen peroxide treatments was less when the interval between inoculation and treatment of cantaloupe exceeded 24 h. Unlike cantaloupe fresh-cut pieces, Salmonella was not recovered from fresh-cut pieces prepared from treated whole honeydew melon. Growth of Salmonella occurred in cantaloupe fresh-cut pieces stored at 10 or 20 degrees C, and by 2 weeks, levels reached approximately 1 log CFU/g. A rapid decline in appearance and overall acceptability was observed in fresh-cut pieces prepared from untreated whole cantaloupe. While Salmonella was recovered from fresh-cut pieces from and whole treated cantaloupe, sanitizing the surface of contaminated whole melons with hydrogen peroxide before and after cutting and storage of the fresh-cut pieces at 5 degrees C can enhance the microbial safety and acceptability rating for about 2 weeks after processing.
Consumption of minimally-processed, or fresh-cut, fruit and vegetables has rapidly increased in recent years, but there have also been several reported outbreaks associated with the consumption of these products. Sodium hypochlorite is currently the most widespread disinfectant used by fresh-cut industries. Neutral electrolyzed water (NEW) is a novel disinfection system that could represent an alternative to sodium hypochlorite. The aim of the study was to determine whether NEW could replace sodium hypochlorite in the fresh-cut produce industry. The effects of NEW, applied in different concentrations, at different treatment temperatures and for different times, in the reduction of the foodborne pathogens Salmonella, Listeria monocytogenes and Escherichia coli O157:H7 and against the spoilage bacterium Erwinia carotovora were tested in lettuce. Lettuce was artificially inoculated by dipping it in a suspension of the studied pathogens at 10(8), 10(7) or 10(5) cfu ml(-1), depending on the assay. The NEW treatment was always compared with washing with deionized water and with a standard hypochlorite treatment. The effect of inoculum size was also studied. Finally, the effect of NEW on the indigenous microbiota of different packaged fresh-cut products was also determined. The bactericidal activity of diluted NEW (containing approximately 50 ppm of free chlorine, pH 8.60) against E. coli O157:H7, Salmonella, L. innocua and E. carotovora on lettuce was similar to that of chlorinated water (120 ppm of free chlorine) with reductions of 1-2 log units. There were generally no significant differences when treating lettuce with NEW for 1 and 3 min. Neither inoculation dose (10(7) or 10(5) cfu ml(-1)) influenced the bacterial reduction achieved. Treating fresh-cut lettuce, carrot, endive, corn salad and 'Four seasons' salad with NEW 1:5 (containing about 50 ppm of free chlorine) was equally effective as applying chlorinated water at 120 ppm. Microbial reduction depended on the vegetable tested: NEW and sodium hypochlorite treatments were more effective on carrot and endive than on iceberg lettuce, 'Four seasons' salad and corn salad. The reductions of indigenous microbiota were smaller than those obtained with the artificially inoculated bacteria tested (0.5-1.2 log reduction). NEW seems to be a promising disinfection method as it would allow to reduce the amount of free chlorine used for the disinfection of fresh-cut produce by the food industry, as the same microbial reduction as sodium hypochlorite is obtained. This would constitute a safer, 'in situ', and easier to handle way of ensuring food safety.
The action of hydrogen peroxide on acetylcholinesterase enzymatic activity in myometrium sarcolemma fraction is investigated. Hydrogen peroxide (0.1-26 microM), depending on the concentration, suppressed the activity. Acetylcholinesterase proved to be highly sensitive to the action of H2O2, making Ki = 2.4 +/- 0.4 microM, nH = 0.65 +/- 0.08 (n = 4-5). It is established, that hydrogen peroxide in the range of 1.6 - 6.4 microM essentially reduce V(0,max) and K(M). In the presence of dithiothreitole (a reducer of SH-groups of the membrane surface) the investigated substance effect considerably decreased.
In the Brown Norway (BN) rat, chemical compounds [mercuric chloride (HgCl2), D-penicillamine or gold salts] induce a T(h)2-dominated autoimmune syndrome with tissue injury in the form of a vasculitis and arthritis. An early phase of vasculitis in the model occurs within 24 h of an injection of HgCl2, is alphabeta T cell independent and involves the mast cell. In addition, HgCl2 induces IL-4 mRNA in mast cells from BN rats. Our recent work has demonstrated that the balance of oxidative/antioxidative influences plays an important role in the modulation of mast cell function (degranulation) in chemically induced autoimmunity. The aim of this study was to determine, in mast cells, whether oxidative status influences IL-4 transcription and translation, which is required for the development of a T(h)2 response. Exposure of the mast cell line RBL-2H3 to HgCl2 enhanced both IL-4 mRNA and its promoter activity. Oxidative stress by hydrogen peroxide mimicked the effects of HgCl2 in enhancing IL-4 promoter activity. The enhancement of IL-4 gene expression by HgCl2 was significantly reduced by antioxidants (both sulphydryl and non-sulphydryl containing). The same pattern of regulation was also observed on IL-4 protein expression in the mast cells. These data suggest a novel mechanism of IL-4 transcriptional up-regulation by oxidative stress. Our results provide evidence to support our hypothesis that alterations in intracellular reactive oxygen species production modulate both IL-4 gene expression and mast cell function.
Heme distribution in subcellular fractions of rat liver was studied first hours under the action of several agents causing oxidative stress in vivo. Total and post-mitochondrial heme content in liver was found to depend on both the level of hemolysis products in blood and agent's capacity to modify heme and hemoproteins. The increase of activity of 5-aminolevulinate synthase (ALAS) and/or heme accumulation in mitochondria was accompanied by increase of tryptophan-2,3-dioxygenase (TDO) heme saturation. Membrane stabilisation by tocopherol or prevention of early ALAS induction by cycloheximide prevented both mitochondrial heme accumulation and increase of TDO heme saturation. Modification of heme fully prevented the alterations of total heme content even under severe hemolysis as well as the increase of TDO heme saturation if no increase of heme synthesis occurred. Thus heme synthesis can greatly contribute to heme intracellular redistribution under oxidative stress.
Lingonberry grown in northern Manitoba, Canada, contains exceptionally high levels of anthocyanins and other polyphenols. Previous studies from our lab have shown that lingonberry anthocyanins can protect H9c2 cells from ischemia-reperfusion injury and anthocyanin-rich diets have been shown to be associated with decreased cardiovascular disease and mortality. Oxidative stress can impair function and trigger apoptosis in cardiomyocytes. This study investigated the protective effects of physiologically relevant doses of lingonberry extracts and pure anthocyanins against hydrogen-peroxide-induced cell death. Apoptosis and necrosis were detected in H9c2 cells after hydrogen peroxide treatment via flow cytometry using FLICA 660 caspase 3/7 combined with YO-PRO-1 and then confirmed with Hoechst staining and fluorescence microscopy. Each of the 3 major anthocyanins found in lingonberry (cyanidin-3-galactoside, cyanidin-3-glucoside, and cyanidin-3-arabinoside) was protective against hydrogen-peroxide-induced apoptosis in H9c2 cells at 10 ng·mL-1 (20 nmol·L-1) and restored the number of viable cells to match the control group. A combination of the 3 anthocyanins was also protective and a lingonberry extract tested at 3 concentrations produced a dose-dependent protective effect. Lingonberry anthocyanins protected cardiac cells from oxidative-stress-induced apoptosis and may have cardioprotective effects as a dietary modification.