Skip header and navigation

Refine By

7 records – page 1 of 1.

Brominated flame retardant concentrations in sera from the Canadian Health Measures Survey (CHMS) from 2007 to 2009.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature106100
Source
Environ Int. 2014 Feb;63:26-34
Publication Type
Article
Date
Feb-2014
Author
Dorothea F K Rawn
J Jake Ryan
Amy R Sadler
Wing-Fung Sun
Dorcas Weber
Patrick Laffey
Douglas Haines
Kristin Macey
Jay Van Oostdam
Author Affiliation
Food Research Division, Bureau of Chemical Safety, Health Products and Food Branch, Health Canada, Sir Frederick Banting Research Centre, 251 Sir Frederick Banting Driveway, Address Locator: 2203C, Tunney's Pasture, Ottawa, ON K1A 0K9, Canada. Electronic address: thea.rawn@hc-sc.gc.ca.
Source
Environ Int. 2014 Feb;63:26-34
Date
Feb-2014
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adolescent
Adult
Aged
Canada
Child
Environmental Exposure
Environmental pollutants - blood
Europe - epidemiology
Female
Flame Retardants - analysis
Food Contamination
Halogenated Diphenyl Ethers - blood
Humans
Hydrocarbons, Brominated - blood
Male
Middle Aged
Occupational Exposure
Young Adult
Abstract
Pooling of surplus serum from individual samples, collected between 2007 and 2009 during Cycle 1 of the Canadian Health Measures Survey (CHMS), was performed to develop a national baseline estimate of brominated flame retardants in Canadians. Serum samples were categorized by sex and distributed by five age groups ranging from 6 to 79years. Nearly 5000 (4583) serum samples were used to form 59 composite pools. Serum pools were created to ensure a high detection frequency of these analytes in serum because low volume samples had previously resulted in non-detectable concentrations. The analytes of interest in these serum pools included 23 polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) and three hexabromocyclododecane (HBCD) isomers (a-, ß- and ?-HBCD). PBDEs were observed in all samples tested and total PBDE concentrations ranged from 27ngg(-1) lipid to 130ngg(-1) lipid (geometric mean [GM] 46ngg(-1) lipid). ?PBDE concentrations were significantly elevated in samples representing the 6-11year old age group (GM 65ngg(-1) lipid) relative to ages above 40years, although no difference in concentration was observed between the sexes. PBDE concentrations in Canadian sera from the general population were higher than reported in Europe and Asia, but a little lower than observed in the US. PBDE 47 was the greatest contributor to ?PBDE concentrations and the GM concentration for this congener was 22ngg(-1) lipid. The other dominant contributors to ?PBDE concentrations were in descending order: 153 [GM 9.4ngg(-1) lipid]>99 [GM 4.6ngg(-1) lipid]?100 [GM 4.1ngg(-1) lipid]>209 [GM 1.1ngg(-1) lipid] and 183 [GM 0.42ngg(-1) lipid]. ?HBCD was detected in all samples analysed, although most samples were observed at concentrations
PubMed ID
24246239 View in PubMed
Less detail

Brominated flame retardants in plasma samples from three different occupational groups in Norway.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature193482
Source
J Environ Monit. 2001 Aug;3(4):366-70
Publication Type
Article
Date
Aug-2001
Author
C. Thomsen
E. Lundanes
G. Becher
Author Affiliation
National Institute of Public Health, P.O. Box 4404, Nydalen, N-0403 Oslo, Norway. cathrine.thomsen@folkehelsa.no
Source
J Environ Monit. 2001 Aug;3(4):366-70
Date
Aug-2001
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adult
Female
Flame Retardants - analysis
Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry
Humans
Hydrocarbons, Brominated - blood - chemistry
Industry
Male
Middle Aged
Norway
Occupational Exposure - analysis - statistics & numerical data
Occupations
Abstract
Brominated flame retardants (BFRs) are widely used in plastics, textile coatings, electrical appliances and printed circuit boards to prohibit the development of fires. In order to investigate how exposure to BFRs is related to specific occupations, samples were obtained from Norwegian individuals working at an electronics dismantling facility, in the production of printed circuit boards, or as laboratory personnel. Nine BFRs were quantified in the plasma samples: 2,4,4'-tribromodiphenyl ether (BDE-28), 2,2',4,4'-tetrabromodiphenyl ether (BDE-47), 2,2',4,4',5-pentabromodiphenyl ether (BDE-99), 2,2',4,4',6-pentabromodiphenyl ether (BDE-100), 2,2',4,4',5,5'-hexabromodiphenyl ether (BDE-153), 2,2',4,4',5,6'-hexabromodiphenyl ether (BDE-154), 2,2',3,4,4',5',6-heptabromodiphenyl ether (BDE-183), 2,4,6-tribromophenol (TriBP) and tetrabromobisphenol A (TBBP-A). The BFRs were extracted from plasma using solid-phase extraction (SPE). The plasma lipids were decomposed by treatment with concentrated sulfuric acid directly on the SPE column, prior to the elution of the BFRs. Following diazomethane derivatization, the samples were analysed by gas chromatography-electron capture mass spectrometry. The subjects working at the electronics dismantling plant had significantly higher plasma levels of TBBP-A and BDE-153 compared to the other groups, and the heptabrominated congener BDE-183 was only detected in plasma from this group. TriBP was generally the most abundant BFR present, and the plasma concentrations were in the range 0.17-81 ng g-1 lipids. BDE-47 was the dominant BDE congener in all the individual samples and the levels were in the range 0.43-14.6 ng g-1 lipids. The total amounts of the seven BDEs were 8.8, 3.9 and 3.0 ng g-1 lipids for the group of electronics dismantlers, circuit board producers and laboratory personnel, respectively. Generally, large variations in the individual concentration levels were found within the groups, especially in the group of electronics dismantlers, where the relative standard deviations for BDE concentrations were in the range 23-164%. The levels of BFRs were not correlated to age or the level of 2,2',4,4',5,5'-hexachlorobiphenyl (CB-153). The present work indicates that the population in Norway is exposed to several BFRs, probably with food as a major source. The elevated level of higher brominated BDEs and TBBP-A in the plasma from the workers at the dismantling plant suggests an additional occupational exposure for these individuals. Thus, human exposure to BFRs seems to originate from a combination of different sources; however, further studies investigating plasma samples from a larger number of individuals are necessary for a more complete assessment of human exposure pathways to these environmental contaminants.
PubMed ID
11523435 View in PubMed
Less detail

Comparative fate of organohalogen contaminants in two top carnivores in Greenland: captive sledge dogs and wild polar bears.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature86527
Source
Comp Biochem Physiol C Toxicol Pharmacol. 2008 Apr;147(3):306-15
Publication Type
Article
Date
Apr-2008
Author
Verreault Jonathan
Dietz Rune
Sonne Christian
Gebbink Wouter A
Shahmiri Soheila
Letcher Robert J
Author Affiliation
National Wildlife Research Centre, Science and Technology Branch, Environment Canada, Carleton University, Ottawa, Ontario, Canada K1S 5B6.
Source
Comp Biochem Physiol C Toxicol Pharmacol. 2008 Apr;147(3):306-15
Date
Apr-2008
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adipose Tissue - metabolism
Animals
Biotransformation
Body Burden
Diet
Dogs
Environmental monitoring
Environmental Pollutants - blood - metabolism
Female
Food chain
Food Contamination
Greenland
Hydrocarbons, Brominated - blood - metabolism
Hydrocarbons, Chlorinated - blood - metabolism
Minke Whale - metabolism
Seals, Earless - metabolism
Snow Sports
Species Specificity
Ursidae - metabolism
Abstract
The limited knowledge and/or the inability to control physiological condition parameters that influence the fate of organohalogen contaminants (OHCs) has been the foremost confounding aspect in monitoring programs and health risk assessments of wild top predators in the Arctic such as the polar bear (Ursus maritimus). In the present comparative study, we used a potential surrogate Canoidea species for the East Greenland polar bear, the captive sledge dog (Canis familiaris), to investigate some factors that may influence the bioaccumulation and biotransformation of major chlorinated and brominated OHCs in adipose tissue and blood (plasma) of control (fed commercial pork fat) and exposed (fed West Greenland minke whale (Balaenoptera acutorostrata) blubber) adult female sledge dogs. Furthermore, we compared the patterns and concentrations of OHCs and their known or suggested hydroxylated (OH) metabolites (e.g., OH-PCBs) in sledge dogs with those in adipose tissue and blood (plasma) of East Greenland adult female polar bears, and blubber of their main prey species, the ringed seal (Pusa hispida). The two-year feeding regime conducted with sledge dogs led to marked differences in overall adipose tissue (and plasma) OHC residue accumulation between the control and exposed groups. Characteristic prey-to-predator OHC bioaccumulation dynamics for major PCB and PBDE congeners (patterns and concentrations) and biotransformation capacity with respect to PCB metabolite formation and OH-PCB retention distinguished, to some extent, captive sledge dogs and wild polar bears. Based on the present findings, we conclude that the use of surrogate species in toxicological investigations for species in the Canoidea family should be done with great caution, although they remain essential in the context of contaminants research with sensitive arctic top carnivore species such as the polar bear.
PubMed ID
18248775 View in PubMed
Less detail

Determinants of plasma PCB, brominated flame retardants, and organochlorine pesticides in pregnant women and 3 year old children in The Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature273849
Source
Environ Res. 2016 Apr;146:136-44
Publication Type
Article
Date
Apr-2016
Author
Ida Henriette Caspersen
Helen Engelstad Kvalem
Margaretha Haugen
Anne Lise Brantsæter
Helle Margrete Meltzer
Jan Alexander
Cathrine Thomsen
May Frøshaug
Nanna Margrethe Bruun Bremnes
Sharon Lynn Broadwell
Berit Granum
Manolis Kogevinas
Helle Katrine Knutsen
Source
Environ Res. 2016 Apr;146:136-44
Date
Apr-2016
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Child, Preschool
Cohort Studies
Demography
Diet
Environmental Exposure
Environmental monitoring
Environmental pollutants - blood
Female
Flame Retardants - metabolism
Humans
Hydrocarbons, Brominated - blood
Hydrocarbons, Chlorinated - blood
Life Style
Norway
Pesticides - blood
Polybrominated Biphenyls - blood
Polychlorinated biphenyls - blood
Pregnancy
Abstract
Exposure to persistent organic pollutants (POPs) during prenatal and postnatal life has been extensively studied in relation to adverse health effects in children.
The aim was to identify determinants of the concentrations of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), brominated flame retardants (polybrominated diphenyl ethers, PBDEs; polybrominated biphenyl, PBB), and organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) in blood samples from pregnant women and children in The Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study (MoBa).
Blood samples were collected from two independent subsamples within MoBa; a group of women (n=96) enrolled in mid-pregnancy during the years 2002-2008 and a group of 3 year old children (n=99) participating during 2010-2011. PCB congeners (74, 99, 138, 153, 180, 170, 194, 209, 105, 114, 118, 156, 157, 167, and 189), brominated flame retardants (PBDE-28, 47, 99, 100, 153, 154, and PBB-153), as well as the OCPs hexachlorobenzene (HCB), oxychlordane, 4,4'dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT), and 4,4'dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (DDE) were measured in both pregnant women and children.
Age, low parity, and low pre-pregnant BMI were the most important determinants of increased plasma concentrations of POPs in pregnant women. In 3 year old children, prolonged breastfeeding duration was a major determinant of increased POP concentrations. Estimated dietary exposure to PCBs during pregnancy was positively associated with plasma concentrations in 3 year old children, but not in pregnant women. Plasma concentrations were approximately 40% higher in children compared to pregnant women.
Several factors associated with exposure and toxicokinetics, i.e. accumulation, excretion and transfer via breastmilk of POPs were the main predictors of POP levels in pregnant women and children. Diet, which is the main exposure source for these compounds in the general population, was found to predict PCB levels only among children. For the PBDEs, for which non-dietary sources are more important, toxicokinetic factors appeared to have less predictive impact.
PubMed ID
26749444 View in PubMed
Less detail

Hydroxy-PCBs, PBDEs, and HBCDDs in serum from an elderly population of Swedish fishermen's wives and associations with bone density.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature79706
Source
Environ Sci Technol. 2006 Oct 15;40(20):6282-9
Publication Type
Article
Date
Oct-15-2006
Author
Weiss Jana
Wallin Ewa
Axmon Anna
Jönsson Bo A G
Akesson Helene
Janák Karel
Hagmar Lars
Bergman Ake
Author Affiliation
Department of Environmental Chemistry, Stockholm University, SE-10691 Stockholm, Sweden.
Source
Environ Sci Technol. 2006 Oct 15;40(20):6282-9
Date
Oct-15-2006
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Aged
Aged, 80 and over
Animals
Bone Density
Chromatography, Liquid - methods
Environmental pollutants - blood
Female
Fisheries
Humans
Hydrocarbons, Brominated - blood
Linear Models
Mass Spectrometry - methods
Middle Aged
Polybrominated Biphenyls - blood
Polychlorinated biphenyls - blood
Sweden
Water Pollutants, Chemical - blood
Abstract
Lack of human exposure data is frequently reported as a critical gap in risk assessments of environmental pollutants, especially regarding "new" pollutants. The objectives of this study were to assess serum levels of the persistent 2,2',4,4',5,5'-hexachlorobiphenyl (CB-153), hydroxylated polychlorinated biphenyl metabolites (OH-PCBs), polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), and hexabromocyclodode-canes (HBCDDs) in a group of Swedish middle-aged and elderly women expected to be relatively highly exposed, and to evaluate the impact of potential determinants (e.g., fish intake, age) for the inter-individual variation, as well as to investigate the association between these pollutants and bone density. No associations were found between bone mineral density or biochemical markers of bone metabolism and the analyzed environmental pollutants. Relatively high levels of CB-153 (median 260 ng/g fat) and sigma 3-OH-PCBs (median 1.7 ng/mL serum), and low concentrations of sigma6PBDEs (median 3.6 ng/g fat) were determined. Total level of HBCDDs in serum was quantified by gas chromatography with mass spectrometric detection (median 0.5 ng/g fat). HBCDD diastereomeric and enantiomeric patterns were determined by liquid chromatography with mass spectrometric detection. The dominating stereoisomer was (-)alpha-HBCDD, but 1-3% of gamma-HBCDD was also detected in the serum samples.
PubMed ID
17120554 View in PubMed
Less detail

Plasma concentrations of selected organobromine compounds and polychlorinated biphenyls in postmenopausal women of Qu├ębec, Canada.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature160811
Source
Environ Health Perspect. 2007 Oct;115(10):1429-34
Publication Type
Article
Date
Oct-2007
Author
Torkjel M Sandanger
Marc Sinotte
Pierre Dumas
Mario Marchand
Courtney D Sandau
Daria Pereg
Sylvie Bérubé
Jacques Brisson
Pierre Ayotte
Author Affiliation
Unité de recherche en santé publique, Centre hospitalier universitaire de Québec and Université Laval, Québec, Québec, Canada.
Source
Environ Health Perspect. 2007 Oct;115(10):1429-34
Date
Oct-2007
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Bromine Compounds - blood
Environmental Exposure - adverse effects
Environmental monitoring
Epidemiological Monitoring
Female
Food chain
Halogenated Diphenyl Ethers
Humans
Hydrocarbons, Brominated - blood
Middle Aged
Phenyl Ethers - blood
Polybrominated Biphenyls - blood
Polychlorinated biphenyls - blood
Postmenopause
Quebec - epidemiology
Abstract
Brominated flame retardants, especially polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), have been widely used in North America, but little is known about the level of exposure of human populations to these compounds.
We set out to assess the internal exposure of postmenopausal Canadian women to selected organobromine compounds and to investigate factors associated with this exposure.
We measured concentrations of four PBDEs, one polybrominated biphenyl, and for comparative purposes, 41 polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congeners in plasma samples from 110 healthy postmenopausal women who were recruited at a mammography clinic in 2003-2004.
PBDE-47 was the major PBDE congener, with a mean (geometric) concentration of 8.1 ng/g lipids and extreme values reaching 1,780 ng/g. By comparison, the mean concentration of the major PCB congener (PCB-153) was 41.7 ng/g and the highest value was 177 ng/g. PBDEs 47, 99, and 100 were strongly intercorrelated, but weaker correlations were noted with PBDE-153. As the sum of PBDEs (summation operatorPBDEs) increased, the relative contribution of PBDE-47 to the summation operatorPBDEs increased, whereas that of PBDE-153 decreased. PBDE-153 was the only brominated compound correlated to PCB-153. PBDE levels were not linked to any sociodemographic, anthropometric, reproductive, or lifestyle variables documented in the present study. Age and body mass index gain since the age of 18 years were significant predictors of PCB-153 plasma levels.
Our results suggest that exposure to PBDE-47 likely occurs through direct contact with the penta-PBDE formulation, whereas exposure to PBDE-153 may originate in part from the food chain.
Notes
Cites: J Toxicol Environ Health A. 1999 Nov 26;58(6):329-4110580757
Cites: Environ Sci Technol. 2007 Mar 1;41(5):1584-917396645
Cites: Chemosphere. 2000 May-Jun;40(9-11):1111-2310739053
Cites: Environ Health Perspect. 2001 Apr;109(4):399-40711335189
Cites: Am J Ind Med. 2002 Feb;41(2):102-1011813215
Cites: Environ Sci Technol. 2002 Apr 1;36(7):1414-811999045
Cites: Anal Chem. 2003 Jan 1;75(1):71-712530820
Cites: Environ Res. 2003 Oct;93(2):186-9412963403
Cites: Environ Health Perspect. 2003 Nov;111(14):1723-914594622
Cites: Environ Health Perspect. 2004 Jan;112(1):9-1714698924
Cites: Environ Health Perspect. 2004 May;112(6):654-815121506
Cites: Clin Chim Acta. 1989 Oct 16;184(3):219-262611996
Cites: J Occup Environ Med. 2005 Mar;47(3):199-21115761315
Cites: Environ Sci Technol. 2005 Feb 15;39(4):925-3115773463
Cites: J Toxicol Environ Health A. 2005 Apr 9;68(7):501-1315805045
Cites: Environ Sci Technol. 2005 Jul 15;39(14):5121-3016082939
Cites: Environ Sci Technol. 2005 Jul 15;39(14):5177-8216082945
Cites: Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev. 2005 Sep;14(9):2224-3616172236
Cites: Environ Health Perspect. 2005 Dec;113(12):1689-9216330348
Cites: Arch Environ Contam Toxicol. 2006 Feb;50(2):290-616392019
Cites: Environ Health Perspect. 2006 Feb;114(2):176-8116451851
Cites: Environ Sci Technol. 2005 Dec 15;39(24):9457-6316475322
Cites: Environ Pollut. 2006 May;141(1):30-4116236409
Cites: Environ Health Perspect. 2006 Aug;114(8):1179-8516882522
Cites: Sci Total Environ. 2006 Nov 1;370(2-3):452-6616959301
Cites: Environ Health Perspect. 2006 Oct;114(10):1581-417035146
Cites: Environ Health Perspect. 2006 Nov;114(11):1770-517107866
Cites: Environ Sci Technol. 2006 Oct 15;40(20):6247-5417120549
Cites: Environ Sci Technol. 2006 Oct 15;40(20):6282-917120554
Cites: Environ Health Perspect. 2000 Feb;108(2):167-7210656858
PubMed ID
17938731 View in PubMed
Less detail

Polybrominated diphenyl ethers: human tissue levels and toxicology.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature5502
Source
Rev Environ Contam Toxicol. 2004;183:55-97
Publication Type
Article
Date
2004
Author
Udai Gill
Ih Chu
John J Ryan
Mark Feeley
Author Affiliation
Environmental Research Division, First Nations and Inuit Health Branch, Health Canada, Ottawa, Ontario, KIA 0L2, Canada.
Source
Rev Environ Contam Toxicol. 2004;183:55-97
Date
2004
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Absorption
Acute Toxicity Tests
Animals
Body Burden
Body constitution
Environmental Monitoring - statistics & numerical data
Flame Retardants - metabolism - toxicity
Humans
Hydrocarbons, Brominated - blood - metabolism - toxicity
Mice
Mutagenicity Tests
Occupational Exposure
Phenyl Ethers - blood - metabolism - toxicity
Rats
Risk assessment
Tissue Distribution
Abstract
PBDEs are being released to the environment in wastes from their production facilities, degradation, or leaching and volatilization from products that contain PBDEs during the product's useful life. Brominated diphenyl ether congeners BDE-47, -99, and -153 are ubiquitous in the environment and are regarded as the most dominant congeners present in wildlife and humans. The tetra- to hexa-BDE are most likely the congeners to which humans are exposed through food consumption. Knowledge of PBDE uptake, metabolism, elimination, and enzyme induction is restricted largely to rodents (rats and mice) in vitro and in vivo. Feeding studies have shown that excretion of higher brominated BDEs is much greater than lower brominated BDEs. Penta-BDE is more toxic than octa- and deca-BDE following oral administration (oral LD50 in rats, 0.5-5 g/kg). In rodents, repeated exposure to PBDEs results in thyroid hormone disruption, developmental neurotoxicity, some changes of fetal development, and hepatotoxic effects. The observed chronic NOELs depend upon the technical mixture type (i.e., deca-, octa-, or penta- and their congener composition), animal species, and study protocol. Values range from 0.6 to 100 mg/kg in rats and from I to 100 mg/kg in mice. PBDEs are neither mutagenic nor genotoxic. Immunotoxicity in mice is observed following exposure to BDE-47 at 18 mg/kg/d, where splenocyte number decreased. Mice exposed neonatally to a single oral dose of BDE-47(10.5 mg/kg) or BDE-99 (12 mg/kg) on Pnd10 (period of rapid brain growth and development) show permanent impairment of spontaneous motor behavior when reaching adulthood. BDE-99 also induced adverse effects on learning and memory functions of mice. The estimated daily intake based on food consumption for PBDEs ranges from 44 to 51 ng/d, with fish contributing almost one-half. The BDE-99 body burden from a human milk survey can be estimated at 0.64 microg/kg, well below the experimental body burden of 0.4 mg/kg BDE-99 associated with behavioral alterations in neonatal mice. When considering the outlier value for PBDE-99 at 229 ng/g, this would result in an estimated PBDE-99 body burden of 46 microg/kg, or a MOS of only 9. However, no toxicokinetics data are available for humans, and the actual margin of safety may be much smaller if based on levels in critical target organs or tissues.
PubMed ID
15369322 View in PubMed
Less detail

7 records – page 1 of 1.