Some individuals report weak appetite sensations and thus, have higher susceptibility to overeating. The aim of this study was (1) to evaluate the reliability of the satiety quotient (SQ), a marker of satiety efficiency; (2) to characterize the biopsychobehavioural profiles of individual presenting low satiety efficiency, i.e. the low satiety phenotype and (3) to document the impact of a weight loss program on these profiles. Sixty-nine obese men (BMI 33.6±3.0 kg/m², age 41.5±5.7 years) participated in a 16-week, non-restrictive weight loss intervention. Visual analog scales for appetite sensations in response to a test-meal were completed twice at baseline. Blood samples were collected before and during one test-meal. Questionnaires were administered before and after the intervention. The mean SQ showed good reliability (ICC=0.67). Baseline SQ scores tended to be negatively correlated with external hunger, anxiety and night eating symptoms (p
Hunger and food insecurity are important factors that may affect an individual's nutritional state and should therefore be assessed in nutrition surveillance activities. The objective of this study was to determine the level of food insecurity and hunger among HIV-positive persons accessing antiretroviral therapy in British Columbia. A cross-sectional study was performed in the BC HIV/AIDS drug treatment program, a province-wide source of free-of-charge antiretroviral medications. In 1998-1999, participants completed a questionnaire focusing on personal information, health, and clinical status. Food and hunger issues were evaluated with the Radimer/Cornell questionnaire. Overall, 1213 responding men and women were classified as food secure (52%), food insecure without hunger (27%), or food insecure with hunger (21%). In both categories of food insecurity, individuals were significantly more likely to be women, aboriginals, living with children, and to have less education, a history of recreational injection drug and/or alcohol abuse, and an unstable housing situation (P
Chemical senses such as odor, taste and appearance are directly related with appetite. Understanding the relation between appetite and flavor is getting more important due to increasing number of obese patients worldwide. The literature on the studies investigating the change in olfactory abilities and gustatory sensitivity mostly performed using food-related odors and tastes rather than standardized tests were developed to study olfaction and gustation. Therefore, results are inconsistent and the relationship between olfactory and gustatory sensitivity with respect to the actual state of human satiety is still not completely understood. Here, for the first time in literature, we investigated the change in both olfactory abilities and gustatory sensitivity in hunger and in satiety using 123 subjects (37 men, 86 women; mean age 31.4 years, age range 21-41 years). The standardized Sniffin' Sticks Extended Test and Taste Strips were used for olfactory testing and gustatory sensitivity, respectively. TDI score (range 1-48) was calculated as the collective scores of odor threshold (T), odor discrimination (D) and odor identification (I). The evaluation was performed in two successive days where the hunger state of test subjects was confirmed by blood glucose test strips (mean blood glucose level 90.0 ± 5.6 mg/dl in hunger and 131.4 ± 8.1 mg/dl in satiety). The results indicated statistically significant decrease in olfaction in satiety compared to hunger (mean TDI 39.3 ± 1.1 in hunger, 37.4 ± 1.1 in satiety, p
Compared in the study are the results obtained using the Radimer/Cornell hunger scale to measure the prevalence of hunger in random samples of mothers and their households in the Russian Federation and in the USA in 1993. The 12 items in the scale measured hunger at three levels: household, women, and children. If the mother answered positively to one of the four items at a particular level, hunger was established for that level. The prevalence of hunger in the Russian Federation was very high: approximately 77% of the women surveyed, 70% of the households, and 32% of the children were classified as hungry. The corresponding estimated prevalences of hunger in New York State in 1993 were 46.8%, 25.9% and 18.3%. In both surveys, children were the least likely to be classified as hungry and, if they were, their mothers and households were almost always hungry. In both surveys, the hunger scale proved to have criterion-related validity. Basic indicators of household socioeconomic and demographic well-being were highly related to the three levels of hunger. The higher level of hunger in the Russian survey can be explained by the very low incomes. Further study of the nutritional status of the Russian population is recommended.