OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to quantify the global burden of osteoporotic fracture worldwide. METHODS: The incidence of hip fractures was identified by systematic review and the incidence of osteoporotic fractures was imputed from the incidence of hip fractures in different regions of the world. Excess mortality and disability weights used age- and sex-specific data from Sweden to calculate the Disability Adjusted Life Years (DALYs) lost due to osteoporotic fracture. RESULTS: In the year 2000 there were an estimated 9.0 million osteoporotic fractures of which 1.6 million were at the hip, 1.7 million at the forearm and 1.4 million were clinical vertebral fractures. The greatest number of osteoporotic fractures occurred in Europe (34.8%). The total DALYs lost was 5.8 million of which 51% were accounted for by fractures that occurred in Europe and the Americas. World-wide, osteoporotic fractures accounted for 0.83% of the global burden of non-communicable disease and was 1.75% of the global burden in Europe. In Europe, osteoporotic fractures accounted for more DALYs lost than common cancers with the exception of lung cancer. For chronic musculo-skeletal disorders the DALYs lost in Europe due to osteoporosis (2.0 million) were less than for osteoarthrosis (3.1 million) but greater than for rheumatoid arthritis (1.0 million). CONCLUSION: We conclude that osteoporotic fractures are a significant cause of morbidity and mortality, particularly in the developed countries.
Changes in incidence and lifetime risk of fractures are of major importance in the epidemiology of osteoporosis. We focused on hip fractures in women and men and on radial and humeral fractures in women. The study subjects comprised 4500 women and men 20 years old or more with fractures. In women 1735 fractures of the distal radius, 747 fractures of the proximal humerus, 878 cervical and 635 trochanteric hip fractures were included. In men 273 cervical and 232 trochanteric hip fractures were included. The fractures were registered during the period 1976 to 1984 and changes in age-specific incidence were calculated (chi-squared test for linear trend; p-values less than 0.05 were considered significant). On the basis of life tables and population background data, the lifetime risk was estimated. The incidence of cervical hip fractures in women aged 60-89 years decreased significantly (p
Low-trauma fractures (also called osteoporotic fragility fractures or fall-induced fractures) of older adults are a serious public health problem. However, very little population-based information is available on the nationwide numbers, incidences, and especially secular trends of elderly people's low-trauma fractures of the distal humerus.
We assessed the current trends in the number and incidence of these fractures in 60-year-old or older women in Finland by taking into account all women who were admitted to Finnish hospitals for primary treatment of such fracture in 1970-2014.
The annual number of low-trauma distal humeral fractures among Finnish women 60 years of age or older rose over fivefold between 1970 and 1998 (from 42 to 224 fractures), but thereafter, the number decreased down to 198 fractures in 2014. The age-adjusted incidence (per 100,000 persons) of these fractures also increased in 1970-1998 (from 12 to 35) but decreased thereafter to 23 in 2014. The finding was similar in the age-specific patient groups (60-69, 70-79, and 80+): The incidence rose from 1970 till 1998 and decreased thereafter.
The steep rise in the rate of low-trauma distal humeral fractures in 60-year-old or older Finnish women from 1970 till late 1990s has been followed by a clearly declining fracture rate. The exact reasons for this secular change are unknown, but a cohort effect toward improved functional ability among elderly women, as well as measures to prevent falls and alleviate fall severity, could partly explain the phenomenon.
Bisphosphonates are the mainstay of anti-osteoporotic treatment and are commonly used for a longer duration than in the placebo-controlled trials. A link to development of atypical subtrochanteric or diaphyseal fragility fractures of the femur has been proposed, and these fractures are currently the subject of a U.S. Food and Drug Administration review.
Our objective was to examine the risk of subtrochanteric/diaphyseal femur fractures in long term users of alendronate.
We conducted an age- and gender-matched cohort study using national healthcare data.
Patients were alendronate users, without previous hip fracture, who began treatment between January 1, 1996, and December 31, 2005 (n=39,567) and untreated controls, (n=158,268).
Subtrochanteric or diaphyseal femur fractures were evaluated.
Subtrochanteric and diaphyseal fractures occurred at a rate of 13 per 10,000 patient-years in untreated women and 31 per 10,000 patient-years in women receiving alendronate [adjusted hazard ratio (HR)=1.88; 95% confidence interval (CI)=1.62-2.17]. Rates for men were six and 31 per 10,000 patient-years, respectively (HR=3.98; 95% CI=2.62-6.05). The HR for hip fracture was 1.37 (95% CI=1.30-1.46)) in women and 2.47 (95% CI=2.07-2.95) in men. Risks of subtrochanteric/diaphyseal fracture were similar in patients who had received 9 yr of treatment (highest quartile) and patients who had stopped therapy after the equivalent of 3 months of treatment (lowest quartile).
Alendronate-treated patients are at higher risk of hip and subtrochanteric/diaphyseal fracture than matched control subjects. However, large cumulative doses of alendronate were not associated with a greater absolute risk of subtrochanteric/diaphyseal fractures than small cumulative doses, suggesting that these fractures could be due to osteoporosis rather than to alendronate.
Cites: N Engl J Med. 2000 Jun 22;342(25):1887-9210861325
The radiographs of 589 elbow fractures in children under the age of 16 years were reviewed. The most common fractures were: supracondylar fracture of the humerus -55 per cent, fracture of the radial neck -14 per cent, and fracture of the lateral humeral condyle -12 per cent. One fifth of all fractures of the olecranon were associated with another elbow fracture; most often a fracture of the medial epicondyle. The average annual incidence of elbow fractures in the age group studied was 12 per 10.000 (10.0-14.7) without a significant change of the incidence between 1950 and 1979. Supracondylar and lateral condylar fracture of the humerus and fracture of the olecranon occurred more often in boys. Fractures of the lateral humeral condyle were more often caused by higher energy levels than the other fracture groups.
The age and sex specific indicence was calculated in 729 cases of fracture of the upper end of the humerus. The prevalence of other fractures and conditions in these patients was investigated. The age and sex specific incidence is as that of femoral neck fracture with a rapid increase with age, twice as fast in women as in men. Only fractures which include evulsion of the greater tuberosity deviate somewhat from that pattern. The more displaced fractures have a tendency to occur later in life. The prevalence of other fractures is about doubled in patients with fracture of the proximal end of the humerus as compared to age and sex matched controls. This is true for fracture of the distal end of the forearm and fracture of the upper end of the femur but also for other fractures. The prevalence of severe alcoholism was significantly greater than in controls. A history of gastric resection was in these patients about three times as frequent as in a control sample. We conclude that fracture of the upper end of the humerus must be assigned a prominent place in the category of bone fragility fractures.
The purpose of this population-based registry study was to analyze both birth-related femur and humerus shaft fractures and diagnosed later in infancy, as regards incidence, perinatal characteristics, other diagnoses, and reported accidents.
Children born in 1997-2014, diagnosed with a femur or humerus shaft fracture before age 1?year, were identified in the Swedish Health Registries. Rate of birth fractures were estimated by combining femur and humerus shaft fractures coded as birth-related with femur and humerus shaft fractures diagnosed during day 1-7 without registered trauma or abuse. Incidence was computed by comparing infants with femur or humerus shaft fractures to the total at-risk population.
The incidence for birth-related femur shaft fractures was 0.024 per 1000 children (n?=?45) and that for birth-related humerus shaft fractures was 0.101 per 1000 children (n?=?188). The incidence was 0.154 per 1000 children for later femur shaft fractures (n?=?287) and 0.073 per 1000 children for later humerus shaft fractures (n?=?142). Birth-related femur shaft fracture was associated with shoulder dystocia, cesarean, multiple birth, breech, preterm, and small-for-gestational age, while humerus shaft fracture was associated with maternal obesity, dystocic labor, shoulder dystocia, vacuum-assisted delivery, male sex, multiple birth, breech, preterm, large-for-gestational age, birth weight?>?4000?g, and injury of brachial plexus. A bone fragility diagnosis was recorded in 5% of those with birth-related or later femur shaft fractures. Among infants with birth-related humerus shaft fractures, 1% had a bone fragility diagnosis; the figure for later fractures was 6%. Maltreatment diagnosis was associated with later fractures of both types, especially among those aged
In an urban population of half a million, all proximal humeral fractures were recorded in 1983. A total of 565 fractures, of which 77 per cent occurred in women, were seen. The overall incidence per 100,000 was 48 in men and 142 in women, with an exponential increase from the 5th decade of age. This rise was due to a higher incidence of minimally displaced fractures associated with moderate trauma, and thus of fractures associated with osteoporosis.
There are only a few previous population-based studies that include both inpatient and outpatient treatment data. The aim of this study was to investigate the epidemiology of proximal humerus fractures. The incidence of proximal humerus fractures increases with age, and we observe a seasonal variation strongly favoring winter months.
Proximal humerus fractures are the third most common osteoporotic fracture type observed in elderly patients, after wrist and hip fractures. However, few previous population-based studies include both inpatient and outpatient treatment data. The aim of this study was to investigate the incidence, fracture morphology, and treatment method provided in cases of proximal humerus fractures.
We retrospectively studied patient records from a mid-sized town in Finland between the years 2006 and 2010. The following data were collected from the medical records: age, sex, date of the fracture, laterality of the fracture, mechanism of injury, treatment method, and other associated fractures at the time of the original injury. Sex and age distributions of the patient population at risk (>18 years old) were calculated for the study period.
A total of 678 patients (females n?=?503, 73 %) with 692 proximal humerus fractures were identified. The unadjusted incidence was 82 (95 % CI 76 to 88) per 100,000 person-years, 114 (95 % CI 104 to 124), and 47 (95 % CI 41 to 54) per 100,000 person-years in females and males, respectively. Incidence increased toward the older age groups. Clear seasonal variation was observed, two-part fractures were most common (428, 62 %), the majority of the fractures (n?=?539, 78 %) were treated nonoperatively with a sling.
The incidence of proximal humerus fractures increases with age, and we observe a seasonal variation strongly favoring winter months. It is evident that proximal humerus fractures cause considerable morbidity among elderly people and consume health care resources.
The incidence rates of common fall-related fractures were investigated in a Danish population of elderly people (> 64 years). One thousand one hundred and eighty fractures in 1016 patients were observed. About 26/1000 suffered a fracture per year, 47% being hip fractures, and 33% fractures of the wrist. Incidence rates increased with age, most markedly for fractures in the weight-bearing skeleton (hip, pelvis and vertebral column). Patients with a fall-related fracture had a four times higher risk of getting a new fracture. Increased mortality, adjusted for age and sex, ranged from 10 to 30 percent in the first year; except for fractures of the wrist, which were not associated with increased mortality.