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A 1-year evaluation of Syva MicroTrak Chlamydia enzyme immunoassay with selective confirmation by direct fluorescent-antibody assay in a high-volume laboratory.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature217461
Source
J Clin Microbiol. 1994 Sep;32(9):2208-11
Publication Type
Article
Date
Sep-1994
Author
E L Chan
K. Brandt
G B Horsman
Author Affiliation
Laboratory and Disease Control Services, Saskatchewan Health, Regina, Canada.
Source
J Clin Microbiol. 1994 Sep;32(9):2208-11
Date
Sep-1994
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Algorithms
Chlamydia Infections - diagnosis - epidemiology - microbiology
Chlamydia trachomatis - immunology - isolation & purification
Cost Control
Densitometry
Diagnostic Tests, Routine - economics
Evaluation Studies as Topic
Female
Fluorescent Antibody Technique - economics
Humans
Immunoenzyme Techniques - economics
Male
Predictive value of tests
Prevalence
Reagent kits, diagnostic
Saskatchewan - epidemiology
Seasons
Sensitivity and specificity
Urethritis - diagnosis - epidemiology - microbiology
Uterine Cervicitis - diagnosis - epidemiology - microbiology
Abstract
TThe Syva MicroTrak Chlamydia enzyme immunoassay (EIA; Syva Company, San Jose, Calif.) with cytospin and direct fluorescent-antibody assay (DFA) confirmation was evaluated on 43,630 urogenital specimens over a 1-year period in the Provincial Laboratory in Regina, Saskatchewan, Canada. This was a two-phase study intended to define a testing algorithm for Chlamydia trachomatis that would be both highly accurate and cost-effective in our high-volume (> 3,000 tests per month) laboratory. The prevalence of C. trachomatis infection in our population is moderate (8 to 9%). In phase 1, we tested 6,022 male and female urogenital specimens by EIA. All specimens with optical densities above the cutoff value and those within 30% below the cutoff value were retested by DFA. This was 648 specimens (10.8% of the total). A total of 100% (211 of 211) of the specimens with optical densities equal to or greater than 1.00 absorbance unit (AU) above the cutoff value, 98.2% (175 of 178) of the specimens with optical densities of between 0.500 and 0.999 AU above the cutoff value, and 83% (167 of 201) of the specimens with optical densities within 0.499 AU above the cutoff value were confirmed to be positive. A total of 12% (7 of 58) of the specimens with optical densities within 30% below the cutoff value were positive by DFA. In phase 2, we tested 37,608 specimens (32,495 from females; 5,113 from males) by EIA. Only those specimens with optical densities of between 0.499 AU above and 30% below the cutoff value required confirmation on the basis of data from phase 1 of the study. This was 4.5% of all specimens tested. This decrease in the proportion of specimens requiring confirmation provides a significant cost savings to the laboratory. The testing algorithm gives us a 1-day turnaround time to the final confirmed test results. The MicroTrak EIA performed very well in both phases of the study, with a sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, and negative predictive value of 96.1, 99.1, 90.3, and 99.7%, respectively, in phase 2. We suggest that for laboratories that use EIA for Chlamydia testing, a study such as this one will identify an appropriate optical density range for confirmatory testing for samples from that particular population.
Notes
Cites: Epidemiol Rev. 1983;5:96-1236357824
Cites: J Clin Microbiol. 1993 Jun;31(6):1646-78315010
Cites: Diagn Microbiol Infect Dis. 1992 Nov-Dec;15(8):663-81478048
Cites: J Clin Microbiol. 1990 Nov;28(11):2473-62254422
PubMed ID
7814548 View in PubMed
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ß2-adrenergic receptor polymorphisms, asthma and COPD: two large population-based studies.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature129736
Source
Eur Respir J. 2012 Mar;39(3):558-66
Publication Type
Article
Date
Mar-2012
Author
M. Thomsen
B G Nordestgaard
A A Sethi
A. Tybjærg-Hansen
M. Dahl
Author Affiliation
Dept of Clinical Biochemistry, Herlev Hospital, Herlev, Denmark.
Source
Eur Respir J. 2012 Mar;39(3):558-66
Date
Mar-2012
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adult
Aged
Aged, 80 and over
Asthma - epidemiology - genetics
Denmark - epidemiology
Female
Gene Frequency
Humans
Incidence
Lung - physiopathology
Male
Middle Aged
Polymorphism, Genetic
Prevalence
Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive - epidemiology - genetics
Receptors, Adrenergic, beta-2 - genetics
Young Adult
Abstract
The ß(2)-adrenergic receptor (ADRB2) is an important regulator of airway smooth muscle tone. We tested the hypothesis that three functional polymorphisms in the ADRB2 gene (Thr164Ile, Gly16Arg and Gln27Glu) are associated with reduced lung function, asthma or chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). We first genotyped 8,971 individuals from the Copenhagen City Heart Study for all three polymorphisms. To validate our findings, we genotyped an additional 53,777 individuals from the Copenhagen General Population Study for the Thr164Ile polymorphism. We identified 60,910 Thr164Ile noncarriers, 1,822 heterozygotes and 16 homozygotes. In the Copenhagen City Heart Study, the Thr164Ile genotype was associated with reduced forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV(1)) % predicted (trend p = 0.01) and FEV(1)/forced vital capacity (FVC) (p = 0.001): Thr164Ile heterozygotes had 3% and 2% reduced FEV(1) % pred and FEV(1)/FVC, respectively, compared with noncarriers. The odds ratio for COPD in Thr164Ile heterozygotes was 1.46 (95% CI 1.05-2.02). In the Copenhagen General Population Study, the Thr164 genotype associated with reduced FEV(1) % pred (p = 0.04) and FEV(1)/FVC (p
PubMed ID
22075484 View in PubMed
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2nd-generation HIV surveillance and injecting drug use: uncovering the epidemiological ice-berg.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature84543
Source
Int J Public Health. 2007;52(3):166-72
Publication Type
Article
Date
2007
Author
Reintjes Ralf
Wiessing Lucas
Author Affiliation
Department of Public Health, Faculty Life Sciences, Hamburg University of Applied Sciences, Hamburg, Germany. Ralf.Reintjes@rzbd.haw-hamburg.de
Source
Int J Public Health. 2007;52(3):166-72
Date
2007
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome - epidemiology - prevention & control - therapy
Cost-Benefit Analysis
Europe - epidemiology
HIV Infections - epidemiology - prevention & control - therapy
Hepatitis C - epidemiology
Humans
Norway - epidemiology
Population Surveillance
Prevalence
Risk factors
Risk-Taking
Substance Abuse, Intravenous - epidemiology
Turkey - epidemiology
Abstract
OBJECTIVES: HIV/AIDS surveillance methods are under revision as the diversity of HIV epidemics is becoming more apparent. The so called "2nd generation surveillance (SGS) systems" aim to enhance surveillance by broadening the range of indicators to prevalence, behaviors and correlates, for a better understanding and a more complete and timely awareness of evolving epidemics. METHODS: Concepts of HIV SGS are reviewed with a special focus on injecting drug users, a major at-risk and hard to reach group in Europe, a region with mainly low or concentrated epidemics. RESULTS: The scope of HIV/AIDS surveillance needs to be broadened following principles of SGS. Specifically for IDUs we propose including hepatitis C data as indicator for injecting risk in routine systems like those monitoring sexually transmitted infections and information on knowledge and attitudes as potential major determinants of risk behavior. CONCLUSIONS: The suggested approach should lead to more complete and timely information for public health interventions, however there is a clear need for comparative validation studies to assess the validity, reliability and cost-effectiveness of traditional and enhanced HIV/AIDS surveillance systems.
PubMed ID
17958283 View in PubMed
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2-year clinical performance of a fluoride-containing fissure sealant in young schoolchildren at caries risk.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature34233
Source
Am J Dent. 1997 Jun;10(3):115-9
Publication Type
Article
Date
Jun-1997
Author
A. Carlsson
M. Petersson
S. Twetman
Author Affiliation
Public Dental Clinic, Vallås, Sweden.
Source
Am J Dent. 1997 Jun;10(3):115-9
Date
Jun-1997
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Analysis of Variance
Cariostatic Agents - analysis - therapeutic use
Chi-Square Distribution
Child
Colony Count, Microbial
Composite Resins - chemistry - therapeutic use
Dental Caries - epidemiology - prevention & control
Dental Plaque - microbiology
Fluorides - analysis - pharmacology - therapeutic use
Humans
Lactobacillus - drug effects - isolation & purification
Pit and Fissure Sealants - therapeutic use
Prevalence
Risk assessment
Saliva - chemistry - microbiology
Statistics, nonparametric
Streptococcus mutans - drug effects - isolation & purification
Sweden - epidemiology
Abstract
PURPOSE: To evaluate the clinical performance of Helioseal-F, a fluoride-containing fissure sealant, in school children at caries risk. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A caries risk assessment based on past caries experience, saliva microbial tests, buffer capacity and frequency of sugar intake was carried out in 204 healthy children, 6-7 years of age. Children exhibiting one or more risk factors were considered at caries risk (n = 121) and their permanent molars were sealed with a fluoride-containing fissure sealant, thus forming a fissure sealant group (FSG). The remaining 83 children with low caries risk received no fissure sealants and constituted a reference group (RG). Both groups were followed for 2 years. From 15 children of both groups, unstimulated whole saliva was collected 1 month after sealant placement in order to determine fluoride levels. In another 20 children, a split-mouth study design was utilized to compare the colonization of mutans streptococci adjacent to and on F-containing sealants and conventional controls. The sealants were placed by dental hygienists according to the manufacturers' instructions. RESULTS: A total of 431 fissure sealants were placed at baseline. Complete retention was found in 76.6% during the study period while 22.0% were partially lost. Six sealants (1.4%) were completely lost. The enamel caries incidence was 45% lower (P
PubMed ID
9545884 View in PubMed
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A 2-year community-randomized controlled trial of fluoride varnish to prevent early childhood caries in Aboriginal children.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature157658
Source
Community Dent Oral Epidemiol. 2008 Dec;36(6):503-16
Publication Type
Article
Date
Dec-2008
Author
Herenia P Lawrence
Darlene Binguis
Jan Douglas
Lynda McKeown
Bonita Switzer
Rafael Figueiredo
Audrey Laporte
Author Affiliation
Community Dentistry Discipline, Department of Biological and Diagnostic Sciences, Faculty of Dentistry, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON, Canada. herenia.lawrence@utoronto.ca
Source
Community Dent Oral Epidemiol. 2008 Dec;36(6):503-16
Date
Dec-2008
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Caregivers - education
Cariostatic Agents - administration & dosage - therapeutic use
Child, Preschool
Cluster analysis
DMF Index
Dental Caries - epidemiology - prevention & control
Female
Fluorides, Topical - therapeutic use
Health Education, Dental
Health Status Disparities
Humans
Incidence
Indians, North American
Infant
Logistic Models
Male
Ontario - epidemiology
Prevalence
Sodium Fluoride - administration & dosage
Tooth, Deciduous
Abstract
To measure the effectiveness of fluoride varnish (FV) (Duraflor), 5% sodium fluoride, Pharmascience Inc., Montréal, QC, Canada) and caregiver counseling in preventing early childhood caries (ECC) in Aboriginal children in a 2-year community-randomized controlled trial.
Twenty First Nations communities in the Sioux Lookout Zone (SLZ), Northwest Ontario, Canada were randomized to two study groups. All caregivers received oral health counseling, while children in one group received FV twice per year and the controls received no varnish. A total of 1275, 6 months to 5-year-old children from the SLZ communities were enrolled. In addition, a convenience sample of 150 primarily non-Aboriginal children of the same age were recruited from the neighboring community of Thunder Bay and used as comparisons. Longitudinal examinations for the dmft/s indices were conducted by calibrated hygienists in 2003, 2004 and 2005.
Aboriginal children living in the SLZ or in Thunder Bay had significantly higher caries prevalence and severity than non-Aboriginal children in Thunder Bay. FV treatment conferred an 18% reduction in the 2-year mean 'net' dmfs increment for Aboriginal children and a 25% reduction for all children, using cluster analysis to adjust for the intra-cluster correlation among children in the same community. Adjusted odds ratio for caries incidence was 1.96 times higher in the controls than in the FV group (95% CI = 1.08-3.56; P = 0.027). For those caries-free at baseline, the number (of children) needed to treat (NNT) equaled 7.4.
Findings support the use of FV at least twice per year, in conjunction with caregiver counseling, to prevent ECC, reduce caries increment and oral health inequalities between young Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal children.
PubMed ID
18422711 View in PubMed
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A 4-fold risk of metabolic syndrome in patients with schizophrenia: the Northern Finland 1966 Birth Cohort study.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature49604
Source
J Clin Psychiatry. 2005 May;66(5):559-63
Publication Type
Article
Date
May-2005
Author
Kaisa M Saari
Sari M Lindeman
Kaisa M Viilo
Matti K Isohanni
Marjo-Riitta Järvelin
Liisa H Laurén
Markku J Savolainen
Hannu J Koponen
Author Affiliation
Department of Psychiatry, University of Oulu, PO Box 5000, 90014 Oulu, Finland. kaisa.saari@oulu.fi
Source
J Clin Psychiatry. 2005 May;66(5):559-63
Date
May-2005
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adult
Antipsychotic Agents - adverse effects - therapeutic use
Cohort Studies
Comorbidity
Diet Therapy
Exercise
Female
Finland - epidemiology
Humans
Logistic Models
Male
Metabolic Syndrome X - epidemiology - prevention & control - therapy
Prevalence
Psychiatric Status Rating Scales
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Risk factors
Schizophrenia - diagnosis - drug therapy - epidemiology
Weight Loss
Abstract
OBJECTIVE: Schizophrenia is associated with a shortened life expectancy and increased somatic comorbidity with, e.g., cardiovascular disorders. One major risk factor for these disorders is the metabolic syndrome, which has been reported to have a higher frequency in schizophrenic patients. Our objective was to study the prevalence of metabolic syndrome in a population-based birth cohort. METHOD: The study sample consisted of 5613 members of the Northern Finland 1966 Birth Cohort who participated in the field study from 1997 to 1998. Subjects were divided into 4 diagnostic categories (DSM-III-R): (1) schizophrenia (N = 31), (2) other functional psychoses (N = 22), (3) nonpsychotic disorders (N = 105), and (4) no psychiatric hospital treatment (N = 5455, comparison group). Subjects were assessed for the presence of metabolic syndrome according to the criteria of the National Cholesterol Education Program. RESULTS: The prevalence of metabolic syndrome was higher in subjects with schizophrenia compared with the comparison group (19% vs. 6%, p = .010). The prevalence of metabolic syndrome in subjects with other psychoses was 5%. After controlling for sex, the results of logistic regression analysis showed that the risk of metabolic syndrome in schizophrenia was 3.7 (95% CI = 1.5 to 9.0). CONCLUSIONS: The high prevalence of metabolic syndrome in schizophrenia even at such a relatively young age underscores the need to select antipsychotic medications with no or little capability to induce metabolic side effects. Also, developing comprehensive efforts directed at controlling weight and diet and improving physical activity are needed.
PubMed ID
15889940 View in PubMed
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A 4-year, cluster-randomized, controlled childhood obesity prevention study: STOPP.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature99038
Source
Int J Obes (Lond). 2009 Apr;33(4):408-17
Publication Type
Article
Date
Apr-2009
Author
C. Marcus
G. Nyberg
A. Nordenfelt
M. Karpmyr
J. Kowalski
U. Ekelund
Author Affiliation
Division of Pediatrics, Karolinska Institutet, Department of Clinical Science, Intervention and Technology, National Childhood Obesity Centre, Stockholm, Sweden. claude.marcus@ki.se
Source
Int J Obes (Lond). 2009 Apr;33(4):408-17
Date
Apr-2009
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Anthropometry
Child
Cluster analysis
Female
Health Promotion - organization & administration
Humans
Longitudinal Studies
Male
Obesity - epidemiology - prevention & control
Overweight - epidemiology - prevention & control
Parents - psychology
Physical Fitness - psychology
Prevalence
Risk Reduction Behavior
School Health Services
Sweden - epidemiology
Abstract
OBJECTIVE: To assess the efficacy of a school-based intervention programme to reduce the prevalence of overweight in 6 to 10-year-old children. DESIGN: Cluster-randomized, controlled study. SUBJECTS: A total of 3135 boys and girls in grades 1-4 were included in the study. METHODS: Ten schools were selected in Stockholm county area and randomized to intervention (n=5) and control (n=5) schools. Low-fat dairy products and whole-grain bread were promoted and all sweets and sweetened drinks were eliminated in intervention schools. Physical activity (PA) was aimed to increase by 30 min day(-1) during school time and sedentary behaviour restricted during after school care time. PA was measured by accelerometry. Eating habits at home were assessed by parental report. Eating disorders were evaluated by self-report. RESULTS: The prevalence of overweight and obesity decreased by 3.2% (from 20.3 to 17.1) in intervention schools compared with an increase of 2.8% (from 16.1 to 18.9) in control schools (P
PubMed ID
19290010 View in PubMed
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A 4 year prospective longitudinal study of progression of dental erosion associated to lifestyle in 13-14 year-old Swedish adolescents.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature282697
Source
J Dent. 2016 Apr;47:55-62
Publication Type
Article
Date
Apr-2016
Author
Agneta Hasselkvist
Anders Johansson
Ann-Katrin Johansson
Source
J Dent. 2016 Apr;47:55-62
Date
Apr-2016
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adolescent
Animals
Dental Caries - epidemiology - pathology
Dental Plaque - epidemiology - pathology
Female
Gingivitis - epidemiology - pathology
Humans
Life Style
Longitudinal Studies
Male
Prevalence
Prospective Studies
Sex Factors
Surveys and Questionnaires
Sweden - epidemiology
Tooth Erosion - epidemiology - pathology
Abstract
To evaluate the progression of dental erosion in 13-14 year-olds after 4 years, and its association with lifestyle and oral health.
227 randomly selected 13-14 year-olds from a Public Dental Clinic, Örebro, Sweden, were investigated. A clinical examination was performed which included dental caries/gingival/plaque status, as well as grading of dental erosion at the tooth surface and participant levels in "marker teeth", including buccal/palatal surfaces of 6 maxillary anterior teeth (13-23), and occlusal surfaces of first molars. An interview and a questionnaire regarding drinking habits and other lifestyle factors were completed. All investigations were repeated at follow-up. The participants were divided into high and low progression erosion groups and logistic regression statistics were applied.
175 individuals participated at follow-up. Progression occurred in 35% of the 2566 tooth surfaces. 32% of the surfaces had deteriorated by one severity grade (n=51 individuals) and 3% by two grades (n=2 individuals). Boys showed more severe erosion than girls at the follow-up. Among the variables predicting greater progression, a lower severity of erosive wear at baseline had the highest OR (13.3), followed in descending order by a "retaining" drinking technique, more frequent intake of drinks between meals, low GBI and lesser sour milk intake, with reference to the baseline recording. Using these five variables, sensitivity and specificity were 87% and 67% respectively, for predicting progression of erosion.
Progression of erosive lesions in Swedish adolescents aged 13-14 years followed up to age 17-18 years was common and related to certain lifestyle factors.
In permanent teeth, dental erosion may develop early in life and its progression is common. Dental health workers should be made aware of this fact and regular screenings for erosion and recording of associated lifestyle factors should be performed.
PubMed ID
26867982 View in PubMed
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A 5-year follow-up study of adolescents who sought treatment for substance misuse in Sweden.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature107628
Source
Eur Child Adolesc Psychiatry. 2014 May;23(5):347-60
Publication Type
Article
Date
May-2014
Author
Sheilagh Hodgins
Sara Lövenhag
Mattias Rehn
Kent W Nilsson
Author Affiliation
Maria-Ungdom Research Centre, Stockholm, Sweden.
Source
Eur Child Adolesc Psychiatry. 2014 May;23(5):347-60
Date
May-2014
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adolescent
Adolescent Behavior - psychology
Antisocial Personality Disorder - diagnosis - epidemiology
Comorbidity
Crime - psychology
Female
Follow-Up Studies
Humans
Interviews as Topic
Male
Mental Disorders - epidemiology
Outcome Assessment (Health Care)
Parents
Patient Acceptance of Health Care - statistics & numerical data
Poverty - statistics & numerical data
Prevalence
Residence Characteristics
Risk factors
Socioeconomic Factors
Substance Abuse Treatment Centers
Substance-Related Disorders - epidemiology - psychology - therapy
Sweden - epidemiology
Urban Population
Violence - psychology - statistics & numerical data
Abstract
Previous studies have shown that substance misuse in adolescence is associated with increased risks of hospitalizations for mental and physical disorders, convictions for crimes, poverty, and premature death from age 21 to 50. The present study examined 180 adolescent boys and girls who sought treatment for substance misuse in Sweden. The adolescents and their parents were assessed independently when the adolescents first contacted the clinic to diagnose mental disorders and collect information on maltreatment and antisocial behavior. Official criminal files were obtained. Five years later, 147 of the ex-clients again completed similar assessments. The objectives were (1) to document the prevalence of alcohol use disorders (AUD) and drug use disorders (DUD) in early adulthood; and (2) to identify family and individual factors measured in adolescence that predicted these disorders, after taking account of AUD and DUD in adolescence and treatment. Results showed that AUD, DUD, and AUD + DUD present in mid-adolescence were in most cases also present in early adulthood. Prediction models detected no positive effect of treatment in limiting persistence of these disorders. Thus, treatment-as-usual provided by the only psychiatric service for adolescents with substance misuse in a large urban center in Sweden failed to prevent the persistence of substance misuse. Despite extensive clinical assessments of the ex-clients and their parents, few factors assessed in mid-adolescence were associated with substance misuse disorders 5 years later. It may be that family and individual factors in early life promote the mental disorders that precede adolescent substance misuse.
PubMed ID
23989597 View in PubMed
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A 5-year follow-up study of users of benzodiazepine: starting with diazepam versus oxazepam.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature282849
Source
Br J Gen Pract. 2016 Apr;66(645):e241-7
Publication Type
Article
Date
Apr-2016
Author
Ingunn Fride Tvete
Trine Bjørner
Tor Skomedal
Source
Br J Gen Pract. 2016 Apr;66(645):e241-7
Date
Apr-2016
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adult
Anti-Anxiety Agents - therapeutic use
Anxiety - drug therapy - epidemiology
Depression - drug therapy - epidemiology
Diazepam - therapeutic use
Dose-Response Relationship, Drug
Drug Prescriptions - statistics & numerical data
Female
Follow-Up Studies
Humans
Male
Middle Aged
Norway - epidemiology
Oxazepam - therapeutic use
Prescription Drug Misuse - statistics & numerical data
Prevalence
Proportional Hazards Models
Risk factors
Substance-Related Disorders - epidemiology
Abstract
Drug dependency may develop during long-term benzodiazepine use, indicated, for example, by dose escalation. The first benzodiazepine chosen may affect the risk of dose escalation.
To detect possible differences in benzodiazepine use between new users of diazepam and oxazepam over time.
This 5-year prescription database study included 19 747 new benzodiazepine users, inhabitants of Norway, aged 30-60 years, with first redemption for diazepam or oxazepam.
Individuals starting on diazepam versus oxazepam were analysed by logistic regression with sex, age, other drug redemptions, prescriber's specialty, household income, education level, type of work, and vocational rehabilitation support as background variables. Time to reach a daily average intake of =1 defined daily doses (DDD) over a 3-month period was analysed using a Cox proportional hazard regression model.
New users of oxazepam had a higher risk for dose escalation compared with new users of diazepam. This was true even when accounting for differences in sociodemographic status and previous drug use (hazard ratio [HR] 1.33, 95% confidence interval = 1.17 to 1.51).
Most doctors prescribed, according to recommendations, oxazepam to individuals they may have regarded as prone to and at risk of dependency. However, these individuals were at higher risk for dose escalation even when accounting for differences in sociodemographic status and previous drug use. Differences between the two user groups could be explained by different preferences for starting drug, DDD for oxazepam being possibly too low, and some unaccounted differences in illness.
Notes
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PubMed ID
26965028 View in PubMed
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14322 records – page 1 of 1433.