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Age-related macular degeneration and mortality in community-dwelling elders: the age, gene/environment susceptibility Reykjavik study.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature261803
Source
Ophthalmology. 2015 Feb;122(2):382-90
Publication Type
Article
Date
Feb-2015
Author
Diana E Fisher
Fridbert Jonasson
Gudny Eiriksdottir
Sigurdur Sigurdsson
Ronald Klein
Lenore J Launer
Vilmundur Gudnason
Mary Frances Cotch
Source
Ophthalmology. 2015 Feb;122(2):382-90
Date
Feb-2015
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Age Factors
Aged
Aged, 80 and over
Cause of Death
Cohort Studies
Disease Susceptibility
Female
Follow-Up Studies
Gene-Environment Interaction
Humans
Iceland - epidemiology
Incidence
Macular Degeneration - mortality
Male
Proportional Hazards Models
Prospective Studies
Risk factors
Abstract
To investigate the association between age-related macular degeneration (AMD) and mortality in older persons.
Population-based prospective cohort study.
Participants 67 to 96 years of age (43.1% male) enrolled between 2002 and 2006 in the Age, Gene/Environment Susceptibility-Reykjavik Study.
Retinal photographs of the macula were acquired digitally and evaluated for the presence of AMD lesions using the Wisconsin Age-Related Maculopathy grading scheme. Mortality was assessed prospectively through 2013 with cause of death available through 2009. The association between AMD and death, resulting from any cause and specifically cardiovascular disease (CVD), was examined using Cox proportional hazards regression with age as the time scale, adjusted for significant risk factors and comorbid conditions. To address a violation in the proportional hazards assumption, analyses were stratified into 2 groups based on the mean age at death (83 years).
Mortality resulting from all causes and CVD.
Among 4910 participants, after a median follow-up of 8.6 years, 1742 died (35.5%), of whom 614 (35.2%) had signs of AMD at baseline. Cardiovascular disease was the cause of death for 357 people who died before the end of 2009, of whom 144 (40%) had AMD (101 with early disease and 43 with late disease). After considering covariates, including comorbid conditions, having early AMD at any age or having late AMD in individuals younger than 83 years (n = 4179) were not associated with all-cause or CVD mortality. In individuals 83 years of age and older (n = 731), late AMD was associated significantly with increased risk of all-cause mortality (hazard ratio [HR], 1.76; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.20-2.57) and CVD-related mortality (HR, 2.37; 95% CI, 1.41-3.98). In addition to having AMD, older individuals who died were more likely to be male and to have low body mass index, impaired cognition, and microalbuminuria.
Competing risk factors and concomitant conditions are important in determining mortality risk resulting from AMD. Individuals with early AMD are not more likely to die than peers of comparable age. Late AMD becomes a predictor of mortality by the mid-octogenarian years.
Notes
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PubMed ID
25264026 View in PubMed
Less detail

Arterial stiffness, pressure and flow pulsatility and brain structure and function: the Age, Gene/Environment Susceptibility--Reykjavik study.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature129735
Source
Brain. 2011 Nov;134(Pt 11):3398-407
Publication Type
Article
Date
Nov-2011
Author
Gary F Mitchell
Mark A van Buchem
Sigurdur Sigurdsson
John D Gotal
Maria K Jonsdottir
Ólafur Kjartansson
Melissa Garcia
Thor Aspelund
Tamara B Harris
Vilmundur Gudnason
Lenore J Launer
Author Affiliation
Cardiovascular Engineering, Inc., Norwood, MA 02062, USA. garyfmitchell@mindspring.com
Source
Brain. 2011 Nov;134(Pt 11):3398-407
Date
Nov-2011
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Age Factors
Aged
Aged, 80 and over
Aorta - physiopathology
Blood Flow Velocity - physiology
Blood Pressure - physiology
Brain - blood supply - pathology - physiopathology
Cardiovascular Diseases - pathology - physiopathology
Carotid Arteries - physiopathology
Female
Gene-Environment Interaction
Humans
Iceland
Male
Prospective Studies
Pulsatile Flow - physiology
Risk factors
Vascular Stiffness - physiology
Abstract
Aortic stiffness increases with age and vascular risk factor exposure and is associated with increased risk for structural and functional abnormalities in the brain. High ambient flow and low impedance are thought to sensitize the cerebral microcirculation to harmful effects of excessive pressure and flow pulsatility. However, haemodynamic mechanisms contributing to structural brain lesions and cognitive impairment in the presence of high aortic stiffness remain unclear. We hypothesized that disproportionate stiffening of the proximal aorta as compared with the carotid arteries reduces wave reflection at this important interface and thereby facilitates transmission of excessive pulsatile energy into the cerebral microcirculation, leading to microvascular damage and impaired function. To assess this hypothesis, we evaluated carotid pressure and flow, carotid-femoral pulse wave velocity, brain magnetic resonance images and cognitive scores in participants in the community-based Age, Gene/Environment Susceptibility--Reykjavik study who had no history of stroke, transient ischaemic attack or dementia (n = 668, 378 females, 69-93 years of age). Aortic characteristic impedance was assessed in a random subset (n = 422) and the reflection coefficient at the aorta-carotid interface was computed. Carotid flow pulsatility index was negatively related to the aorta-carotid reflection coefficient (R = -0.66, P
Notes
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PubMed ID
22075523 View in PubMed
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Atrial fibrillation is associated with decreased total cerebral blood flow and brain perfusion.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature300407
Source
Europace. 2018 08 01; 20(8):1252-1258
Publication Type
Comparative Study
Journal Article
Date
08-01-2018
Author
Marianna Gardarsdottir
Sigurdur Sigurdsson
Thor Aspelund
Hrafnhildur Rokita
Lenore J Launer
Vilmundur Gudnason
David O Arnar
Author Affiliation
Department of Radiology, Landspitali-The National University Hospital of Iceland, Hringbraut, 101 Reykjavik, Iceland.
Source
Europace. 2018 08 01; 20(8):1252-1258
Date
08-01-2018
Language
English
Publication Type
Comparative Study
Journal Article
Keywords
Age Factors
Aged
Aged, 80 and over
Atrial Fibrillation - complications - diagnosis - physiopathology
Blood Flow Velocity
Case-Control Studies
Cerebrovascular Circulation
Cerebrovascular Disorders - diagnosis - etiology - physiopathology
Cognition Disorders - etiology - physiopathology - psychology
Cross-Sectional Studies
Female
Humans
Iceland
Magnetic Resonance Imaging
Male
Perfusion Imaging - methods
Prognosis
Risk factors
Abstract
Atrial fibrillation (AF) has been associated with cognitive impairment. Additionally, brain volume may be reduced in individuals with AF. Potential causes may include cerebral micro-embolism or reduced stroke volume due to the beat-to-beat variation in AF. The aims of this study were to measure cerebral blood flow and estimate whole brain perfusion in elderly individuals with and without AF.
Blood flow in the cervical arteries was measured with phase contrast MRI and brain perfusion estimated in a large cohort from the AGES-Reykjavik Study. Individuals were divided into three groups at the time of the MRI: persistent AF, paroxysmal AF, and no history of AF. Of 2291 participants (mean age 79.5?years), 117 had persistent AF and 78 had paroxysmal AF but were in sinus rhythm at the time of imaging AF. Those with persistent AF had lower cholesterol and used more anti-hypertensive medication and warfarin. The three groups were similar with regard to other cardiovascular risk factors. Those in the persistent AF group had significantly lower total cerebral blood flow on average, 472.1?mL/min, both when compared with the paroxysmal AF group, 512.3?mL/min (P?
PubMed ID
29016776 View in PubMed
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Brain tissue volumes in the general population of the elderly: the AGES-Reykjavik study.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature129325
Source
Neuroimage. 2012 Feb 15;59(4):3862-70
Publication Type
Article
Date
Feb-15-2012
Author
Sigurdur Sigurdsson
Thor Aspelund
Lars Forsberg
Jesper Fredriksson
Olafur Kjartansson
Bryndis Oskarsdottir
Palmi V Jonsson
Gudny Eiriksdottir
Tamara B Harris
Alex Zijdenbos
Mark A van Buchem
Lenore J Launer
Vilmundur Gudnason
Author Affiliation
The Icelandic Heart Association, Kopavogur, Iceland. sigurdur@hjarta.is
Source
Neuroimage. 2012 Feb 15;59(4):3862-70
Date
Feb-15-2012
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Age Factors
Aged
Aged, 80 and over
Atrophy
Brain - pathology
Female
Humans
Magnetic Resonance Imaging
Male
Organ Size
Abstract
Imaging studies have reported conflicting findings on how brain structure differs with age and sex. This may be explained by discrepancies and limitations in study population and study design. We report a study on brain tissue volumes in one of the largest cohorts of individuals studied to date of subjects with high mean age (mean ± standard deviation (SD) 76 ± 6 years). These analyses are based on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans acquired at baseline on 4303 non-demented elderly, and 367 who had a second MRI, on average 2.5 ± 0.2 years later. Tissue segmentation was performed with an automatic image analysis pipeline. Total brain parenchymal (TBP) volume decreased with increasing age while there was an increase in white matter hyperintensities (WMH) in both sexes. A reduction in both normal white matter (NWM)- and gray matter (GM) volume contributed to the brain shrinkage. After adjusting for intra-cranial volume, women had larger brain volumes compared to men (3.32%, p
PubMed ID
22119006 View in PubMed
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Early Life Residence, Fish Consumption, and Risk of Breast Cancer.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature289825
Source
Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev. 2017 03; 26(3):346-354
Publication Type
Journal Article
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
Research Support, N.I.H., Intramural
Date
03-2017
Author
Alfheidur Haraldsdottir
Laufey Steingrimsdottir
Unnur A Valdimarsdottir
Thor Aspelund
Laufey Tryggvadottir
Tamara B Harris
Lenore J Launer
Lorelei A Mucci
Edward L Giovannucci
Hans-Olov Adami
Vilmundur Gudnason
Johanna E Torfadottir
Author Affiliation
Faculty of Food Science and Human Nutrition, University of Iceland, Reykjavik, Iceland. alh1@hi.is.
Source
Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev. 2017 03; 26(3):346-354
Date
03-2017
Language
English
Publication Type
Journal Article
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
Research Support, N.I.H., Intramural
Keywords
Adolescent
Adult
Age Factors
Aged
Animals
Breast Neoplasms - epidemiology
Fatty Acids, Omega-3
Feeding Behavior
Female
Fish Oils
Fishes
Humans
Iceland - epidemiology
Longitudinal Studies
Menarche
Middle Aged
Population Surveillance
Proportional Hazards Models
Prospective Studies
Residence Characteristics
Risk factors
Seafood
Surveys and Questionnaires
Abstract
Background: Little is known about fish intake throughout the life course and the risk of breast cancer.Methods: We used data on the first residence of 9,340 women born 1908 to 1935 in the Reykjavik Study as well as food frequency data for different periods of life from a subgroup of the cohort entering the Age, Gene/Environment Susceptibility (AGES)-Reykjavik Study (n = 2,882).Results: During a mean follow-up of 27.3 years, 744 women were diagnosed with breast cancer in the Reykjavik Study. An inverse association of breast cancer was observed among women who lived through the puberty period in coastal villages, compared with women residing in the capital area [HR, 0.78; 95% confidence interval (CI), 0.61-0.99]. In the subgroup analysis of this Icelandic population, generally characterized by high fish intake, we found an indication of lower risk of breast cancer among women with high fish consumption (more than 4 portions per week) in adolescence (HR, 0.71; 95% CI, 0.44-1.13) and midlife (HR, 0.46; 95% CI, 0.22-0.97), compared with low consumers (2 portions per week or less). No association was found for fish liver oil consumption in any time period, which could be due to lack of a reference group with low omega-3 fatty acids intake in the study group.Conclusions: Our findings suggest that very high fish consumption in early to midlife may be associated with a reduced risk of breast cancer.Impact: Very high fish consumption in early adulthood to midlife may be associated with decreased risk of breast cancer. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev; 26(3); 346-54. ©2016 AACR.
Notes
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PubMed ID
27765796 View in PubMed
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Effect of vertebral fractures on function, quality of life and hospitalisation the AGES-Reykjavik study.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature126679
Source
Age Ageing. 2012 May;41(3):351-7
Publication Type
Article
Date
May-2012
Author
Kristin Siggeirsdottir
Thor Aspelund
Brynjolfur Y Jonsson
Brynjolfur Mogensen
Lenore J Launer
Tamara B Harris
Gunnar Sigurdsson
Vilmundur Gudnason
Author Affiliation
Icelandic Heart Association Research Institute, Kopavogur, Iceland. kristin@hjarta.is
Source
Age Ageing. 2012 May;41(3):351-7
Date
May-2012
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Activities of Daily Living
Age Factors
Aged
Aged, 80 and over
Aging - psychology
Biomechanical Phenomena
Comorbidity
Female
Follow-Up Studies
Hospitalization - statistics & numerical data
Humans
Iceland - epidemiology
Linear Models
Male
Muscle strength
Osteoporosis - epidemiology
Proportional Hazards Models
Prospective Studies
Quality of Life
Risk assessment
Risk factors
Spinal Fractures - epidemiology - physiopathology - psychology - therapy
Time Factors
Abstract
understanding the determinants of health burden after a fracture in ageing populations is important.
assess the effect of clinical vertebral and other osteoporotic fractures on function and the subsequent risk of hospitalisation.
individuals from the prospective population-based cohort study Age, Gene/Environment Susceptibility (AGES)-Reykjavik study were examined between 2002 and 2006 and followed up for 5.4 years.
a total of 5,764 individuals, 57.7% women, born 1907-35, mean age 77.
four groups with a verified fracture status were used; vertebral fractures, other osteoporotic fractures excluding vertebral, non-osteoporotic fractures and not-fractured were compared and analysed for the effect on mobility, strength, QoL, ADL, co-morbidity and hospitalisation.
worst performance on functional tests was in the vertebral fracture group for women (P 
Notes
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PubMed ID
22367357 View in PubMed
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Five-year incidence, progression, and risk factors for age-related macular degeneration: the age, gene/environment susceptibility study.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature257369
Source
Ophthalmology. 2014 Sep;121(9):1766-72
Publication Type
Article
Date
Sep-2014
Author
Fridbert Jonasson
Diana E Fisher
Gudny Eiriksdottir
Sigurdur Sigurdsson
Ronald Klein
Lenore J Launer
Tamara Harris
Vilmundur Gudnason
Mary Frances Cotch
Author Affiliation
Department of Ophthalmology, Landspitali University Hospital, Reykjavik, Iceland; Faculty of Medicine, University of Iceland, Reykjavik, Iceland. Electronic address: fridbert@landspitali.is.
Source
Ophthalmology. 2014 Sep;121(9):1766-72
Date
Sep-2014
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Age Factors
Aged
Aged, 80 and over
Biological Markers
Body mass index
Cholesterol, HDL - blood
Disease Progression
Female
Gene-Environment Interaction
Humans
Iceland - epidemiology
Incidence
Macular Degeneration - epidemiology - etiology
Male
Multivariate Analysis
Prospective Studies
Risk factors
Smoking - adverse effects
Abstract
To investigate the incidence and progression of age-related macular degeneration (AMD) and associated risk factors.
Population-based, prospective, cohort study.
We included 2868 participants from the Age Gene/Environment Susceptibility-Reykjavik Study with retinal data at baseline and 5-year follow-up.
Digital macular photographs were graded for presence of AMD. Participants completed a questionnaire and extensive clinical battery. Biomarkers were assessed. Risk factors for AMD were analyzed using multivariate regression analysis with odds ratios (ORs) and 95% CIs.
We assessed AMD, defined as early or late.
Among 2196 participants free of AMD at baseline, 14.9% developed incident AMD. In multivariate models, incident AMD was significantly associated with age (OR per year, 1.14; 95% CI, 1.11-1.17), current smoking (OR, 2.07; 95% CI, 1.38-3.11), former smoking (OR, 1.36; 95% CI, 1.04-1.79), plasma high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol level (OR, 1.62 per mmol/L; 95% CI, 1.19-2.22), and body mass index (BMI; OR, 1.04 per kg/m(2); 95% CI, 1.01-1.07). Among 563 participants with early AMD at baseline, 22.7% progressed to late AMD (11.0% pure geographic atrophy [GA] and 11.7% exudative AMD). On multivariate analyses, age was significantly associated with progression to GA (OR 1.14; 95% CI, 1.07-1.21) and exudative AMD (OR, 1.08; 95% CI, 1.01-1.14). Adjusting for age, female sex was associated with exudative AMD (OR, 2.10; 95% CI, 1.10-3.98) and plasma HDL cholesterol with GA (OR, 2.03 per mmol/L; 95% CI, 1.02-4.05).
By age 85, 57.4% of participants had signs of AMD. Age, smoking, plasma HDL cholesterol, BMI, and female sex are associated with AMD. Elevated HDL cholesterol is associated with GA development.
PubMed ID
24768241 View in PubMed
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Fracture risk assessment in older adults using a combination of selected quantitative computed tomography bone measures: a subanalysis of the Age, Gene/Environment Susceptibility-Reykjavik Study.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature114942
Source
J Clin Densitom. 2014 Jan-Mar;17(1):25-31
Publication Type
Article
Author
Nahid J Rianon
Thomas F Lang
Kristin Siggeirsdottir
Gunnar Sigurdsson
Gudny Eiriksdottir
Sigurdur Sigurdsson
Brynjolfur Y Jonsson
Melissa Garcia
Binbing Yu
Asha S Kapadia
Wendell C Taylor
Beatrice J Selwyn
Vilmundur Gudnason
Lenore J Launer
Tamara B Harris
Author Affiliation
Division of Geriatrics & Palliative Medicine, Department of Internal Medicine, UT Medical School at Houston, TX, USA. Electronic address: Nahid.J.Rianon@uth.tmc.edu.
Source
J Clin Densitom. 2014 Jan-Mar;17(1):25-31
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Absorptiometry, Photon
Age Factors
Aged
Aged, 80 and over
Bone Density
Cohort Studies
Disease Susceptibility
Female
Femur Neck
Humans
Male
Osteoporotic Fractures - epidemiology - radiography
Prevalence
Risk assessment
Self Report
Sex Factors
Tomography, X-Ray Computed
Abstract
Bone mineral density (BMD) and geometric bone measures are individually associated with prevalent osteoporotic fractures. Whether an aggregate of these measures would better associate with fractures has not been examined. We examined relationships between self-reported fractures and selected bone measures acquired by quantitative computerized tomography (QCT), a composite bone score, and QCT-acquired dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry-like total femur BMD in 2110 men and 2682 women in the Age, Gene/Environment Susceptibility-Reykjavik Study. The combined bone score was generated by summing gender-specific Z-scores for 4 QCT measures: vertebral trabecular BMD, femur neck cortical thickness, femur neck trabecular BMD, and femur neck minimal cross-sectional area. Except for the latter measure, lower scores for QCT measures, singly and combined, showed positive (p 
PubMed ID
23562129 View in PubMed
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Glycemic status and brain injury in older individuals: the age gene/environment susceptibility-Reykjavik study.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature150441
Source
Diabetes Care. 2009 Sep;32(9):1608-13
Publication Type
Article
Date
Sep-2009
Author
Jane S Saczynski
Sigurdur Siggurdsson
Palmi V Jonsson
Gudny Eiriksdottir
Elin Olafsdottir
Olafur Kjartansson
Tamara B Harris
Mark A van Buchem
Vilmundur Gudnason
Lenore J Launer
Author Affiliation
Division of Geriatric Medicine and Meyers Primary Care Institute, University of Massachusetts Medical School, Worcester, Massachusetts, USA. jane.saczynski@umassmed.edu
Source
Diabetes Care. 2009 Sep;32(9):1608-13
Date
Sep-2009
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Age Factors
Aged
Aged, 80 and over
Brain Injuries - epidemiology - pathology
Cerebral Infarction - epidemiology - pathology
Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 - epidemiology - pathology
Disease Susceptibility
Female
Humans
Male
Sex Factors
Abstract
To examine the association of glycemic status to magnetic resonance imaging indicators of brain pathological changes.
This was a cross-sectional, population-based study of 4,415 men and women without dementia (mean age 76 years) participating in the Age Gene/Environment Susceptibility-Reykjavik Study. Glycemic status groups included the following: type 2 diabetes (self-report of diabetes, use of diabetes medications, or fasting blood glucose > or =7.0 mmol/l [11.1%]); impaired fasting glucose (IFG) (fasting blood glucose 5.6-6.9 mmol/l [36.2%]); and normoglycemic (52.7%). Outcomes were total brain volume, white and gray matter volume, white matter lesion (WML) volume, and presence of cerebral infarcts.
After adjustment for demographic and cardiovascular risk factors, participants with type 2 diabetes had significantly lower total brain volume (72.2 vs. 71.5%; P
Notes
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PubMed ID
19509008 View in PubMed
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Impairments in hearing and vision impact on mortality in older people: the AGES-Reykjavik Study.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature107576
Source
Age Ageing. 2014 Jan;43(1):69-76
Publication Type
Article
Date
Jan-2014
Author
Diana Fisher
Chuan-Ming Li
May S Chiu
Christa L Themann
Hannes Petersen
Friðbert Jónasson
Pálmi V Jónsson
Johanna Eyrun Sverrisdottir
Melissa Garcia
Tamara B Harris
Lenore J Launer
Gudny Eiriksdottir
Vilmundur Gudnason
Howard J Hoffman
Mary Frances Cotch
Author Affiliation
Division of Epidemiology and Clinical Applications, National Eye Institute, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD, USA.
Source
Age Ageing. 2014 Jan;43(1):69-76
Date
Jan-2014
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Age Factors
Aged
Aged, 80 and over
Cause of Death
Female
Hearing
Hearing Disorders - diagnosis - mortality - physiopathology
Humans
Iceland - epidemiology
Kaplan-Meier Estimate
Male
Persons With Hearing Impairments
Prevalence
Proportional Hazards Models
Prospective Studies
Risk factors
Sex Factors
Time Factors
Vision Disorders - diagnosis - mortality - physiopathology
Vision, Ocular
Visually Impaired Persons
Abstract
to examine the relationships between impairments in hearing and vision and mortality from all-causes and cardiovascular disease (CVD) among older people.
population-based cohort study.
the study population included 4,926 Icelandic individuals, aged =67 years, 43.4% male, who completed vision and hearing examinations between 2002 and 2006 in the Age, Gene/Environment Susceptibility-Reykjavik Study (AGES-RS) and were followed prospectively for mortality through 2009.
participants were classified as having 'moderate or greater' degree of impairment for vision only (VI), hearing only (HI), and both vision and hearing (dual sensory impairment, DSI). Cox proportional hazard regression, with age as the time scale, was used to calculate hazard ratios (HR) associated with impairment and mortality due to all-causes and specifically CVD after a median follow-up of 5.3 years.
the prevalence of HI, VI and DSI were 25.4, 9.2 and 7.0%, respectively. After adjusting for age, significantly (P
PubMed ID
23996030 View in PubMed
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