The aims of the study were to describe the stability of active commuting (AC) behavior (i.e., walking and cycling) over 27years and examine the relationship between AC and physical activity (PA) from youth to early midlife.
The mode and distance of travel were assessed using a self-reported questionnaire at five consecutive measurements between 1980 and 2007, when 2072 individuals were followed up from youth (9-18years) to adulthood (30-45years). PA was also measured using a questionnaire.
The prevalence of AC declined sharply with age, particularly after 12years, while AC distances to work or place of study increased substantially. AC was concurrently and prospectively associated with PA in both men and women. Maintained AC, whether walking or cycling and short or long distances, positively predicted adult PA over time. Compared with persistently passive commuters, persistently active commuters had higher adult PA after adjustment for potential covariates. Increasing AC was independently associated with high adult PA, particularly in young adulthood.
Walking and cycling to school/work should be encouraged, as regular AC is associated with higher levels of PA over 27years of follow-up, and thus, may contribute to a healthy and active lifestyle through the various stages of life-course.
Adiponectin may be involved in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis. We investigated the relation of adiponectin on early functional and structural markers of subclinical atherosclerosis in a large population-based cohort of young men and women.
We measured serum adiponectin using radioimmunoassay in 2,147 young adults (ages 24-39 years) participating in the Cardiovascular Risk in Young Finns Study. The subjects had ultrasound data on carotid intima-media thickness (IMT), carotid artery elasticity (n = 2,139) and brachial flow-mediated dilatation (FMD) (n = 1,996). In univariate analysis, adiponectin was inversely associated with IMT (r = -0.16, P
The aim of this study was to evaluate changes in the nitric oxide synthase inhibitor asymmetric dimethylarginine (ADMA) levels during different menstrual cycle phases in young adult women with or without oral contraceptive (OC) use.
The subjects (n=1079) originated from a large population-based, prospective cohort study conducted in Finland. Plasma ADMA, symmetric dimethylarginine (SDMA), L-arginine, C-reactive protein, creatinine, and brachial artery flow-mediated dilatation (FMD) were measured. The use of OCs and menstrual cycle phase were determined from a questionnaire.
In non-OC users, ADMA (P=0.017), L-arginine (P=0.002), and ADMA/SDMA ratio (P
The purpose of this study was to examine the roles of adolescence risk factors in predicting coronary artery calcium (CAC).
Elevated coronary heart disease risk factor levels in adolescence may predict subsequent CAC independently of change in risk factor levels from adolescence to adulthood.
CAC was assessed in 589 subjects 40 to 46 years of age from the Cardiovascular Risk in Young Finns Study. Risk factor levels were measured in 1980 (12 to 18 years) and in 2007.
The prevalence of any CAC was 19.2% (27.9% in men and 12.2% in women). Age, levels of systolic blood pressure (BP), total cholesterol, and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) in adolescence, as well as systolic BP, total cholesterol, diastolic BP, and pack-years of smoking in adulthood were higher among subjects with CAC than those without CAC. Adolescence LDL-C and systolic BP levels predicted CAC in adulthood independently of 27-year changes in these risk factors. The multivariable odds ratios were 1.34 (95% confidence interval: 1.05 to 1.70; p=0.02) and 1.38 (95% confidence interval: 1.08 to 1.77; p=0.01), for 1-SD increase in adolescence LDL-C and systolic BP, respectively. Exposure to both of these risk factors in adolescence (defined as values at or above the age- and sex-specific 75th percentile) substantially increased the risk of CAC (multivariable odds ratio: 3.5 [95% confidence interval: 1.7 to 7.2; p=0.007]) between groups with no versus both risk factors.
Elevated adolescence LDL-C and systolic BP levels are independent predictors of adulthood CAC, indicating that adolescence risk factor levels play an important role in the pathogenesis of coronary heart disease.
Comment In: J Am Coll Cardiol. 2012 Oct 9;60(15):1371-322981554
Atherosclerosis develops at an early age. We studied whether cholesterol metabolism in adolescence is related to coronary risk factors later during the adult years. A random population sample of 12-year-old (n=162), 15-year-old (n=158), and 18-year-old (n=148) boys who participated in the Cardiovascular Risk in Young Finns Study was studied for major coronary risk factors in 1980 and 2001. These values were related to noncholesterol sterols and their quartiles in 1980 (ie, markers of cholesterol absorption and synthesis). In 1980, serum triglycerides, body mass index (BMI), and systolic blood pressure were lower and high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol was higher in high absorbers versus low absorbers. This difference, except HDL cholesterol, was maintained after follow-up (eg, in 2001, systolic blood pressure was 123+/-1 mm Hg in low absorbers vs 119+/-1 mm Hg in high absorbers, P
Prediction of adult dyslipidemia has been suggested to improve with multiple measurements in childhood or young adulthood, but there is paucity of specific data from longitudinal studies.
The sample comprised 1912 subjects (54% women) from the Cardiovascular Risk in Young Finns Study who had fasting lipid and lipoprotein measurements collected at three time-points in childhood/young adulthood and had at least one follow-up in later adulthood. Childhood/young adult dyslipidemia was defined as total cholesterol (TC), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), non-high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (non-HDL-C) or triglycerides (TG) in the highest quintile, or high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) in the lowest quintile. Adult dyslipidemia was defined according to European cut-points (TC > 5.0 mmol/L, LDL-C >3 mmol/L, Non-HDL-C >3.8 mmol/L, HDL-C 1.7 mmol/L). With the exception of triglycerides, Pearson correlation coefficients for predicting adult levels significantly improved when two lipid or lipoprotein measurements in childhood/young adulthood were compared with one measurement (all P
We examined the association between adulthood emotionality-activity-sociability temperament scale and preclinical atherosclerosis and, whether this association is mediated by cardiovascular risk factors (low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, systolic blood pressure, diastolic blood pressure and body-mass index (BMI)). The participants were a nationally representative sample of 537 men and 811 women from the Cardiovascular Risk in Young Finns study aged 15-30 years at the baseline in 1992 and aged 24-39 years at the follow-up in 2001. Carotid atherosclerosis was assessed by ultrasound scans of the common carotid artery intima-media thickness (IMT) and brachial flow-mediated dilation (FMD). In men, there was an association between the temperament dimension activity and IMT (ß = 0.08, p = 0.036) which was partially mediated by BMI (ß decreased from 0.08 to 0.05; p-value of Sobel test = 0.002). However, after correction for multiple comparisons the association between IMT and the temperament dimension activity in men was only of borderline significance. In women, there were no associations between temperament and IMT or FMD. These results suggest that a highly active temperament may contribute to early signs of atherosclerosis in men and that body mass may mediate this association.
There is substantial epidemiological data suggesting a J- or U-shaped association between alcohol consumption and coronary events. However, some studies in experimental animals suggest that alcohol may increase atherosclerosis. Therefore, our aim was to study whether alcohol consumption is associated with carotid intima-media thickness (IMT), marker of subclinical atherosclerosis, in young, healthy adults.
Alcohol consumption, carotid IMT and conventional cardiovascular risk factors were investigated in 2074 subjects, aged 24-39 years.
In subjects consuming none, >0 to or=4 units of alcohol per day, the respective carotid IMT values were 0.57+/-0.004, 0.59+/-0.003, 0.59+/-0.006, and 0.60+/-0.012 mm (mean+/-S.E.M., P
We investigated the associations of anger and cynicism with carotid artery intima-media thickness (IMT) and whether these associations were moderated by childhood or adulthood socioeconomic status (SES). The participants were 647 men and 893 women derived from the population-based Cardiovascular Risk in Young Finns Study. Childhood SES was measured in 1980 when the participants were aged 3-18. In 2001, adulthood SES, anger, cynicism, and IMT were measured. There were no associations between anger or cynicism and IMT in the entire population, but anger was associated with thicker IMT in participants who had experienced low SES in childhood. This association persisted after adjustment for a host of cardiovascular risk factors. It is concluded that the ill health-effects of psychological factors such as anger may be more pronounced in individuals who have been exposed to adverse socioeconomic circumstances early in life.
Aortic sinus dilatation can lead to aortic valve regurgitation or even aortic dissection. Our objective was to examine the association between body surface area (BSA) measures from childhood to middle age and aortic sinus diameter in middle age. Understanding the relation of these two clarifies how aortic size is normally determined.
Cardiovascular Risk in Young Finns Study is a longitudinal study with follow-up of over 31 years (1980-2011). The study comprises information of body composition from multiple time points of 1950 subjects with cardiac ultrasound measurements made in 2011. The association between BSA in different ages and aortic sinus diameter in middle age was analysed by linear regression modelling adjusted with age, sex and diastolic blood pressure. Missing BSA values were derived for each life year (ages 3-33 years) from subject-specific curves for body weight and height estimated from longitudinal measurements using mixed model regression splines.
BSA estimates in early 20s are most strongly associated with aortic sinus diameter in middle age. Top association was observed at age 23 years with one SD increase in estimated BSA corresponding to 1.04?mm (0.87-1.21?mm) increase in aortic diameter. Increase in body weight beyond early 20s does not associate with aortic sinus diameter, and the association between middle age BSA and aortic size is substantially weaker (0.74?mm increase (0.58-0.89?mm)). These results were confirmed in a subpopulation using only measured data.
The association between aortic sinus diameter and BSA is stronger when considering BSA in young adulthood compared with BSA in middle age.