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A 2 year multidomain intervention of diet, exercise, cognitive training, and vascular risk monitoring versus control to prevent cognitive decline in at-risk elderly people (FINGER): a randomised controlled trial.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature264224
Source
Lancet. 2015 Jun 6;385(9984):2255-63
Publication Type
Article
Date
Jun-6-2015
Author
Tiia Ngandu
Jenni Lehtisalo
Alina Solomon
Esko Levälahti
Satu Ahtiluoto
Riitta Antikainen
Lars Bäckman
Tuomo Hänninen
Antti Jula
Tiina Laatikainen
Jaana Lindström
Francesca Mangialasche
Teemu Paajanen
Satu Pajala
Markku Peltonen
Rainer Rauramaa
Anna Stigsdotter-Neely
Timo Strandberg
Jaakko Tuomilehto
Hilkka Soininen
Miia Kivipelto
Source
Lancet. 2015 Jun 6;385(9984):2255-63
Date
Jun-6-2015
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Aged
Cognition Disorders - epidemiology - prevention & control
Diet
Double-Blind Method
Exercise
Exercise Therapy
Humans
Male
Middle Aged
Neuropsychological Tests
Risk assessment
Vascular Diseases - epidemiology - prevention & control
Abstract
Modifiable vascular and lifestyle-related risk factors have been associated with dementia risk in observational studies. In the Finnish Geriatric Intervention Study to Prevent Cognitive Impairment and Disability (FINGER), a proof-of-concept randomised controlled trial, we aimed to assess a multidomain approach to prevent cognitive decline in at-risk elderly people from the general population.
In a double-blind randomised controlled trial we enrolled individuals aged 60-77 years recruited from previous national surveys. Inclusion criteria were CAIDE (Cardiovascular Risk Factors, Aging and Dementia) Dementia Risk Score of at least 6 points and cognition at mean level or slightly lower than expected for age. We randomly assigned participants in a 1:1 ratio to a 2 year multidomain intervention (diet, exercise, cognitive training, vascular risk monitoring), or a control group (general health advice). Computer-generated allocation was done in blocks of four (two individuals randomly allocated to each group) at each site. Group allocation was not actively disclosed to participants and outcome assessors were masked to group allocation. The primary outcome was change in cognition as measured through comprehensive neuropsychological test battery (NTB) Z score. Analysis was by modified intention to treat (all participants with at least one post-baseline observation). This trial is registered at ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT01041989.
Between Sept 7, 2009, and Nov 24, 2011, we screened 2654 individuals and randomly assigned 1260 to the intervention group (n=631) or control group (n=629). 591 (94%) participants in the intervention group and 599 (95%) in the control group had at least one post-baseline assessment and were included in the modified intention-to-treat analysis. Estimated mean change in NTB total Z score at 2 years was 0·20 (SE 0·02, SD 0·51) in the intervention group and 0·16 (0·01, 0·51) in the control group. Between-group difference in the change of NTB total score per year was 0·022 (95% CI 0·002-0·042, p=0·030). 153 (12%) individuals dropped out overall. Adverse events occurred in 46 (7%) participants in the intervention group compared with six (1%) participants in the control group; the most common adverse event was musculoskeletal pain (32 [5%] individuals for intervention vs no individuals for control).
Findings from this large, long-term, randomised controlled trial suggest that a multidomain intervention could improve or maintain cognitive functioning in at-risk elderly people from the general population.
Academy of Finland, La Carita Foundation, Alzheimer Association, Alzheimer's Research and Prevention Foundation, Juho Vainio Foundation, Novo Nordisk Foundation, Finnish Social Insurance Institution, Ministry of Education and Culture, Salama bint Hamdan Al Nahyan Foundation, Axa Research Fund, EVO funding for University Hospitals of Kuopio, Oulu, and Turku and for Seinäjoki Central Hospital and Oulu City Hospital, Swedish Research Council, Swedish Research Council for Health, Working Life and Welfare, and af Jochnick Foundation.
Notes
Comment In: Nat Rev Neurol. 2015 May;11(5):24825799934
PubMed ID
25771249 View in PubMed
Less detail

Adenoidectomy during early life and the risk of asthma.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature182650
Source
Pediatr Allergy Immunol. 2003 Oct;14(5):358-62
Publication Type
Article
Date
Oct-2003
Author
Petri S Mattila
Sari Hammarén-Malmi
Jussi Tarkkanen
Harri Saxen
Janne Pitkäniemi
Marjatta Karvonen
Jaakko Tuomilehto
Author Affiliation
Department of Otorhinolaryngology, Helsinki University Central Hospital, Helsinki, Finland. petri.mattila@hus.fi
Source
Pediatr Allergy Immunol. 2003 Oct;14(5):358-62
Date
Oct-2003
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adenoidectomy
Adolescent
Adult
Asthma - epidemiology - etiology
Bronchial Hyperreactivity - epidemiology - etiology
Bronchitis - epidemiology - etiology
Child
Child Welfare
Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1 - epidemiology - surgery
Female
Finland - epidemiology
Follow-Up Studies
Humans
Male
Multivariate Analysis
Otitis Media with Effusion - epidemiology - surgery
Postoperative Complications - epidemiology - etiology
Questionnaires
Recurrence
Respiratory Sounds
Risk factors
Statistics as Topic
Treatment Outcome
Abstract
The objective of the study was to evaluate the risk of asthma in children who had undergone an adenoidectomy, an operation frequently performed on children with glue ear or recurrent otitis media. Two surveys were carried out, a nation-wide questionnaire returned by 483 individuals (survey A) and a survey of hospital discharge records involving 1616 children who had undergone an adenoidectomy and 161 control children who had undergone probing of the nasolacrimal duct due to congenital obstruction (survey B). The questionnaire (survey A) showed that an adenoidectomy before the age of 4 years was associated with asthma (OR 3.19, 95% CI 1.25; 8.13) and with allergy to animal dust (OR 2.50, 95% CI 1.27; 4.95). In survey B, asthma diagnosis was retrieved from the national asthma register. It showed also that adenoidectomy at an early age was associated with an increased risk of asthma (OR 6.74, 95% CI 2.99; 15.2). There was an association between asthma and adenoidectomy, even before adenoidectomy had actually been performed. The risk of asthma was highest among children who had had adenoidectomy because of recurrent otitis media. The observed association between an adenoidectomy and asthma may be explained by an underlying factor predisposing to both recurrent otitis media and asthma.
PubMed ID
14641605 View in PubMed
Less detail

Alcohol drinking and cognitive functions: findings from the Cardiovascular Risk Factors Aging and Dementia (CAIDE) Study.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature166066
Source
Dement Geriatr Cogn Disord. 2007;23(3):140-9
Publication Type
Article
Date
2007
Author
Tiia Ngandu
Eeva-Liisa Helkala
Hilkka Soininen
Bengt Winblad
Jaakko Tuomilehto
Aulikki Nissinen
Miia Kivipelto
Author Affiliation
Aging Research Center (ARC), Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden. tiia.ngandu@ki.se
Source
Dement Geriatr Cogn Disord. 2007;23(3):140-9
Date
2007
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Aged
Alcohol Drinking - adverse effects - epidemiology
Causality
Cognition - drug effects
Cognition Disorders - epidemiology - etiology
Cohort Studies
Cross-Sectional Studies
Female
Finland
Follow-Up Studies
Humans
Male
Memory - drug effects
Middle Aged
Psychomotor Performance - drug effects
Abstract
Moderate alcohol drinking is suggested to be beneficial for cognitive functions, but the results of previous studies have varied greatly. Little is known about the effects of midlife alcohol drinking on the cognitive functions later in life.
Participants were derived from random, population-based samples studied in Eastern Finland in 1972, 1977, 1982, or 1987. A total of 1,341 participants were reexamined in 1998, after an average follow-up period of 21 years, at ages 65-79 years.
The participants who did not drink alcohol at midlife had a poorer performance in episodic memory, psychomotor speed, and executive function in late life as compared with infrequent and frequent drinkers, adjusted for sociodemographic and vascular factors. Also late-life nondrinkers had poorer psychomotor speed and executive function. These findings were evident especially among nonsmokers. Further, no interactions between apolipoprotein E4 and alcohol or sex and alcohol were found.
Alcohol drinking both at midlife and later is favorably related to the function in several cognitive domains, including episodic memory, psychomotor speed, and executive function, in late life. However, it is not clear whether the association is causal, what is the possible mechanism, and what would be a safe limit of drinking for the best cognitive function.
PubMed ID
17170526 View in PubMed
Less detail

Analysis of the type 2 diabetes-associated single nucleotide polymorphisms in the genes IRS1, KCNJ11, and PPARG2 in type 1 diabetes.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature181346
Source
Diabetes. 2004 Mar;53(3):870-3
Publication Type
Article
Date
Mar-2004
Author
Christina Eftychi
Joanna M M Howson
Bryan J Barratt
Adrian Vella
Felicity Payne
Deborah J Smyth
Rebecca C J Twells
Neil M Walker
Helen E Rance
Eva Tuomilehto-Wolf
Jaakko Tuomilehto
Dag E Undlien
Kjersti S Rønningen
Cristian Guja
Constantin Ionescu-Tîirgoviste
David A Savage
John A Todd
Author Affiliation
Juvenile Diabetes Research Foundation/Wellcome Trust Diabetes and Inflammation Laboratory, Cambridge Institute for Medical Research, University of Cambridge, Cambridge, U.K.
Source
Diabetes. 2004 Mar;53(3):870-3
Date
Mar-2004
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adult
Amino Acid Substitution
Canada
Child
Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1 - genetics
Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 - genetics
Europe
Female
Humans
Insulin Receptor Substrate Proteins
Male
Phosphoproteins - genetics
Polymorphism, Single Nucleotide - genetics
Potassium Channels, Inwardly Rectifying - genetics
Receptors, Cytoplasmic and Nuclear - genetics
Transcription Factors - genetics
Abstract
It has been proposed that type 1 and 2 diabetes might share common pathophysiological pathways and, to some extent, genetic background. However, to date there has been no convincing data to establish a molecular genetic link between them. We have genotyped three single nucleotide polymorphisms associated with type 2 diabetes in a large type 1 diabetic family collection of European descent: Gly972Arg in the insulin receptor substrate 1 (IRS1) gene, Glu23Lys in the potassium inwardly-rectifying channel gene (KCNJ11), and Pro12Ala in the peroxisome proliferative-activated receptor gamma2 gene (PPARG2). We were unable to confirm a recently published association of the IRS1 Gly972Arg variant with type 1 diabetes. Moreover, KCNJ11 Glu23Lys showed no association with type 1 diabetes (P > 0.05). However, the PPARG2 Pro12Ala variant showed evidence of association (RR 1.15, 95% CI 1.04-1.28, P = 0.008). Additional studies need to be conducted to confirm this result.
PubMed ID
14988278 View in PubMed
Less detail

Analysis of the vitamin D receptor gene sequence variants in type 1 diabetes.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature47171
Source
Diabetes. 2004 Oct;53(10):2709-12
Publication Type
Article
Date
Oct-2004
Author
Sergey Nejentsev
Jason D Cooper
Lisa Godfrey
Joanna M M Howson
Helen Rance
Sarah Nutland
Neil M Walker
Cristian Guja
Constantin Ionescu-Tirgoviste
David A Savage
Dag E Undlien
Kjersti S Rønningen
Eva Tuomilehto-Wolf
Jaakko Tuomilehto
Kathleen M Gillespie
Susan M Ring
David P Strachan
Barry Widmer
David Dunger
John A Todd
Author Affiliation
Juvenile Diabetes Research Foundation/Wellcome Trust DiabetesInflammation Laboratory, Cambridge Institute for Medical Research, University of Cambridge, WT/MRC building, Addenbrooke's Hospital, Cambridge, CB2 2XY, UK. sergey.nejentsev@cimr.cam.ac.uk
Source
Diabetes. 2004 Oct;53(10):2709-12
Date
Oct-2004
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1 - genetics
Great Britain
Humans
Polymorphism, Single Nucleotide - genetics
Receptors, Calcitriol - genetics
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Variation (Genetics) - genetics
Abstract
Vitamin D is known to modulate the immune system, and its administration has been associated with reduced risk of type 1 diabetes. Vitamin D acts via its receptor (VDR). Four single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of the VDR gene have been commonly studied, and evidence of association with type 1 diabetes has been reported previously. We sequenced the VDR gene region and developed its SNP map. Here we analyzed association of the 98 VDR SNPs in up to 3,763 type 1 diabetic families. First, we genotyped all 98 SNPs in a minimum of 458 U.K. families with two affected offspring. We further tested eight SNPs, including four SNPs associated with P
PubMed ID
15448105 View in PubMed
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Appropriateness of anthropometric obesity indicators in assessment of coronary heart disease risk among Finnish men and women.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature180480
Source
Scand J Public Health. 2003;31(4):283-90
Publication Type
Article
Date
2003
Author
Karri Silventoinen
Pekka Jousilahti
Erkki Vartiainen
Jaakko Tuomilehto
Author Affiliation
Division of Epidemiology, School of Public Health, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis 55454-1015, USA. silventoinen@epi.umn.edu
Source
Scand J Public Health. 2003;31(4):283-90
Date
2003
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adult
Analysis of Variance
Anthropometry
Coronary Disease - epidemiology - prevention & control
Female
Finland - epidemiology
Follow-Up Studies
Health Status Indicators
Humans
Incidence
Male
Middle Aged
Obesity - epidemiology
Risk factors
Sensitivity and specificity
Abstract
The aim of the study was to compare the appropriateness of different obesity indicators in the assessment of coronary heart disease (CHD) risk.
The study cohort included 11,510 Finnish men and women aged 25 to 64 year at baseline who participated in a cardiovascular disease risk factor survey in 1987 or 1992. At baseline, data on smoking and diabetes were recorded, blood pressure. body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC), and waist to hip ratio (WHR) were measured, and serum total and high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol were determined. A follow-up was done to the end of 1997. Death or diagnosed event from CHD was used as an outcome variable.
At baseline, BMI was the best explaining variable for systolic and diastolic blood pressure (DBP) and for total cholesterol, whereas WC was the best explaining variable for HDL cholesterol, among both men and women. During the follow-up, WHR was the best predictor of CHD incidence. However, after the adjustment for other CHD risk factors none of the obesity indicators remained statistically significant. In both sexes, BMI was a statistically significant predictor of CHD incidence among subjects with DBP lower than the mean. Among men, a similar interaction was seen between DBP and WC.
WHR was the best predictor of CHD incidence in our data. Abdominal obesity has an effect on CHD incidence independently of general obesity.
PubMed ID
15099034 View in PubMed
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Association of ADIPOQ gene variants with body weight, type 2 diabetes and serum adiponectin concentrations: the Finnish Diabetes Prevention Study.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature138003
Source
BMC Med Genet. 2011;12:5
Publication Type
Article
Date
2011
Author
Niina Siitonen
Leena Pulkkinen
Jaana Lindström
Marjukka Kolehmainen
Johan G Eriksson
Mika Venojärvi
Pirjo Ilanne-Parikka
Sirkka Keinänen-Kiukaanniemi
Jaakko Tuomilehto
Matti Uusitupa
Author Affiliation
Department of Clinical Nutrition and Food and Health Research Centre, Institute of Public Health and Clinical Nutrition, University of Eastern Finland, Kuopio, Finland. niina.siitonen@uef.fi
Source
BMC Med Genet. 2011;12:5
Date
2011
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adiponectin - blood - genetics
Adult
Body Weight - genetics
Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 - epidemiology - genetics - physiopathology - prevention & control
Female
Finland - epidemiology
Genetic Predisposition to Disease
Humans
Life Style
Linkage Disequilibrium
Male
Middle Aged
Obesity - genetics
Phenotype
Polymorphism, Single Nucleotide
Time Factors
Abstract
Adiponectin, secreted mainly by mature adipocytes, is a protein with insulin-sensitising and anti-atherogenic effects. Human adiponectin is encoded by the ADIPOQ gene on the chromosomal locus 3q27. Variations in ADIPOQ are associated with obesity, type 2 diabetes (T2DM) and related phenotypes in several populations. Our aim was to study the association of the ADIPOQ variations with body weight, serum adiponectin concentrations and conversion to T2DM in overweight subjects with impaired glucose tolerance. Moreover, we investigated whether ADIPOQ gene variants modify the effect of lifestyle changes on these traits.
Participants in the Finnish Diabetes Prevention Study were randomly assigned to a lifestyle intervention group or a control group. Those whose DNA was available (n = 507) were genotyped for ten ADIPOQ single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). Associations between SNPs and baseline body weight and serum adiponectin concentrations were analysed using the univariate analysis of variance. The 4-year longitudinal weight data were analysed using linear mixed models analysis and the change in serum adiponectin from baseline to year four was analysed using Kruskal-Wallis test. In addition, the association of SNPs with the risk of developing T2DM during the follow-up of 0-11 (mean 6.34) years was analysed by Cox regression analysis.
rs266729, rs16861205, rs1501299, rs3821799 and rs6773957 associated significantly (p
Notes
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PubMed ID
21219602 View in PubMed
Less detail

Association of ADIPOR2 gene variants with cardiovascular disease and type 2 diabetes risk in individuals with impaired glucose tolerance: the Finnish Diabetes Prevention Study.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature131047
Source
Cardiovasc Diabetol. 2011;10:83
Publication Type
Article
Date
2011
Author
Niina Siitonen
Leena Pulkkinen
Jaana Lindström
Marjukka Kolehmainen
Ursula Schwab
Johan G Eriksson
Pirjo Ilanne-Parikka
Sirkka Keinänen-Kiukaanniemi
Jaakko Tuomilehto
Matti Uusitupa
Author Affiliation
Department of Clinical Nutrition and Food and Health Research Centre, Institute of Public Health and Clinical Nutrition, University of Eastern Finland, Kuopio, Finland. niina.siitonen@uef.fi
Source
Cardiovasc Diabetol. 2011;10:83
Date
2011
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adolescent
Aged
Cardiovascular Diseases - diagnosis - epidemiology - genetics
Child
Child, Preschool
Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 - diagnosis - epidemiology - genetics
Female
Finland - epidemiology
Follow-Up Studies
Genetic Association Studies - methods
Genetic Variation - genetics
Glucose Intolerance - diagnosis - genetics
Humans
Infant
Male
Middle Aged
Receptors, Adiponectin - genetics
Abstract
Adiponectin is an adipokine with insulin-sensitising and anti-atherogenic effects. Two receptors for adiponectin, ADIPOR1 and ADIPOR2, have been characterized that mediate effects of adiponectin in various tissues. We examined whether genetic variation in ADIPOR2 predicts the development of cardiovascular disease (CVD) and/or Type 2 Diabetes (T2DM) in individuals with impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) participating the Finnish Diabetes Prevention Study (DPS).
CVD morbidity and mortality data were collected during a median follow-up of 10.2 years (range 1-13 years) and conversion from IGT to T2DM was assessed during a median follow-up of 7 years (range 1-11 years). Altogether eight SNPs in the ADIPOR2 locus were genotyped in 484 participants of the DPS. Moreover, the same SNPs were genotyped and the mRNA expression levels of ADIPOR2 were determined in peripheral blood mononuclear cells and subcutaneous adipose tissue samples derived from 56 individuals participating in the Genobin study.
In the DPS population, four SNPs (rs10848554, rs11061937, rs1058322, rs16928751) were associated with CVD risk, and two remained significant (p = 0.014 for rs11061937 and p = 0.020 for rs1058322) when all four were included in the same multi-SNP model. Furthermore, the individuals homozygous for the rare minor alleles of rs11061946 and rs11061973 had increased risk of converting from IGT to T2DM. Allele-specific differences in the mRNA expression levels for the rs1058322 variant were seen in peripheral blood mononuclear cells derived from participants of the Genobin study.
Our results suggest that SNPs in the ADIPOR2 may modify the risk of CVD in individuals with IGT, possibly through alterations in the mRNA expression levels. In addition an independent genetic signal in ADIPOR2 locus may have an impact on the risk of developing T2DM in individuals with IGT.
ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00518167.
Notes
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Comment In: Pharmacogenomics. 2012 Feb;13(3):261-422304578
PubMed ID
21943112 View in PubMed
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Association of blood pressure and hypertension with the risk of Parkinson disease: the National FINRISK Study.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature134840
Source
Hypertension. 2011 Jun;57(6):1094-100
Publication Type
Article
Date
Jun-2011
Author
Chengxuan Qiu
Gang Hu
Miia Kivipelto
Tiina Laatikainen
Riitta Antikainen
Laura Fratiglioni
Pekka Jousilahti
Jaakko Tuomilehto
Author Affiliation
Aging Research Center, Karolinska Institutet, Gävlegatan 16, S-11330 Stockholm, Sweden. chengxuan.qiu@ki.se
Source
Hypertension. 2011 Jun;57(6):1094-100
Date
Jun-2011
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adult
Age Factors
Aged
Antihypertensive Agents - therapeutic use
Blood Pressure - drug effects - physiology
Diastole
Female
Finland - epidemiology
Follow-Up Studies
Health Surveys - statistics & numerical data
Humans
Hypertension - complications - drug therapy - physiopathology
Incidence
Male
Middle Aged
Parkinson Disease - epidemiology - etiology - physiopathology
Proportional Hazards Models
Prospective Studies
Registries - statistics & numerical data
Risk Assessment - methods - statistics & numerical data
Risk factors
Sex Factors
Systole
Abstract
Cardiovascular risk factors, such as diabetes mellitus and central obesity, have been associated with Parkinson disease (PD), but data on blood pressure and PD are lacking. We sought to examine the association of blood pressure and hypertension with the risk of PD among men and women. This study consisted of 7 surveys (1972-2002) on representative samples of the general population in Finland (National FINRISK Study). A total number of 59 540 participants (age 25 to 74 years; 51.8% women) who were free of PD and stroke at baseline were prospectively followed until December 31, 2006, to identify incident PD cases using the National Social Insurance Register database. Cox proportional hazards models were constructed to estimate the hazard ratio of PD associated with blood pressure. During a mean follow-up period of 18.8 years (SD: 10.2 years), 423 men and 371 women were ascertained to have developed PD. In women, compared with normotensive subjects (
PubMed ID
21536985 View in PubMed
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Association of serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D with lifestyle factors and metabolic and cardiovascular disease markers: population-based cross-sectional study (FIN-D2D).

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature260969
Source
PLoS One. 2014;9(7):e100235
Publication Type
Article
Date
2014
Author
Maija E Miettinen
Leena Kinnunen
Jaana Leiviskä
Sirkka Keinänen-Kiukaanniemi
Eeva Korpi-Hyövälti
Leo Niskanen
Heikki Oksa
Timo Saaristo
Jaakko Tuomilehto
Mauno Vanhala
Matti Uusitupa
Markku Peltonen
Source
PLoS One. 2014;9(7):e100235
Date
2014
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Aged
Biological Markers - metabolism
Cardiovascular Diseases - blood - epidemiology - metabolism
Cross-Sectional Studies
Female
Finland - epidemiology
Glucose - metabolism
Humans
Life Style
Male
Metabolic Syndrome X - blood - epidemiology - metabolism
Middle Aged
Vitamin D - analogs & derivatives - blood
Abstract
Low serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25OHD) level has been associated with an increased risk of several chronic diseases. Our aim was to determine lifestyle and clinical factors that are associated with 25OHD level and to investigate connection of 25OHD level with metabolic and cardiovascular disease markers.
In total, 2868 Finnish men and women aged 45-74 years participated in FIN-D2D population-based health survey in 2007. Participants that had a serum sample available (98.4%; n?=?2822) were included in this study. 25OHD was measured with chemiluminescent microparticle immunoassay method.
The mean 25OHD level was 58.2 nmol/l in men (n?=?1348) and 57.1 nmol/l in women (n?=?1474). Mean 25OHD level was lower in the younger age groups than in the older ones (p
Notes
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PubMed ID
25000408 View in PubMed
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