The aim of the study was to assess the feasibility of and possible selection to attend in colorectal cancer screening.
During the years 1979-1980, 1 785 men and women (born in 1917-1929) were invited to a pilot screening project for colorectal cancer. The screening method used was a guaiac-based faecal occult blood test repeated once if the initial test was positive.
Compliance was 69% and the test was positive in 19% of those attending. In a record linkage with the Finnish Cancer Registry, 47 colorectal cancer cases and 24 deaths from colorectal cancer were observed by the end of 2004. In all, the particular test method was not regarded specific enough for population screening. There was, however, no difference in cancer incidence between those who complied and those who did not when compared to the general population of same age and gender.
Compliance was found high enough to make screening feasible and there was no self selection of persons with low cancer risk to attend screening.
Treatments for Hodgkin lymphoma are associated with large relative risks of acute myeloid leukemia (AML), but there are few estimates of the excess absolute risk (EAR), a useful measure of disease burden. One-year Hodgkin lymphoma survivors (N = 35,511) were identified within 14 population-based cancer registries in Nordic countries and North America from January 1, 1970, through December 31, 2001. We used Poisson regression analysis to model the EAR of AML, per 10,000 person-years. A total of 217 Hodgkin lymphoma survivors were diagnosed with AML (10.8 expected; unadjusted EAR = 6.2; 95% confidence interval = 5.4 to 7.1). Excess absolute risk for AML was highest during the first 10 years after Hodgkin lymphoma diagnosis but remained elevated thereafter. In subsequent analyses, adjusted for time since Hodgkin lymphoma diagnosis and presented for the 5-9 year interval, the EAR was statistically significantly (P or = 35 age groups, respectively), which may be associated with modifications in chemotherapy.
Survival after non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) has increased thanks to improved treatment but NHL survivors have an increased risk of second neoplasms. The assessment of cancer risk patterns after NHL may help to quantify the late side-effects of therapy. Poisson regression was used to estimate relative risks (RRs) and absolute incidence rates for nine solid tumours based on a nationwide cohort of 60 901 NHL survivors from Finland, Norway and Sweden. Patients were diagnosed between 1980 and 2006 and developed 6815 s neoplasms. NHL patients showed an increased risk of each of the nine investigated cancer sites: prostate and pancreas (both RRs 1·28), breast (1·37), colorectum (1·48), urinary bladder (1·52), stomach and lung (both RRs 1·87), skin (melanoma 2·27) and kidney (2·56). The RRs showed a U-shaped relationship with time after NHL for all nine-second cancer types. NHL diagnosis early in life was a risk factor for the development of second cancers with the exception of melanoma, but a risk excess was even observed in patients diagnosed with NHL at age 80+ years. The present study provides accurate estimates on the adverse late effects of NHL therapy, which should guide the establishment of cancer prevention strategies in NHL survivors.
Most studies that have evaluated the association between anti-diabetic medication and cancer risk have suffered from methodological drawbacks. To avoid time-related biases, we evaluated the effect of treatment duration on the cancer risk among naive users of anti-diabetic medication as compared to non-users. In addition, we addressed the influence of common risk factors such as smoking and BMI. The study population comprised 23,394 participants of FINRISK surveys. Data on cancer and anti-diabetic medication were linked with the study cohorts. We applied Lexis tabulation to the data and analyzed split records by using Poisson regression. Changes in cancer incidence in relation to treatment duration were examined by modeling the rate ratio (RR). After a median follow-up of 9 years, 53 cancer cases among users of anti-diabetic medication and 1,028 among non-users were diagnosed. No significant difference in cancer risk between users and non-users was observed after adjustment. The RR for all medication regardless of its duration was 1.01 [95% CI 0.75-1.33], and 1.37 [0.94-1.94] for period of 1-4 years. The results were similar for metformin, sulfonylurea, and insulin. This study demonstrates that evaluation of the variation in cancer risk in relation to treatment duration is of particular importance for enhancing the accuracy of conclusions on the link between exposure to anti-diabetic medication and cancer risk.
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A case-control study was nested within two maternity cohorts with a total of 7 million years of follow-up for assessment of the role of bacterial infections in childhood leukemia. Offspring of 550,000 mothers in Finland and Iceland were combined to form a joint cohort that was followed for cancer up to age 15 years during 1975-1997 through national cancer registries. For each index mother-case pair, three or four matched control mother-control pairs were identified from population registers. First-trimester serum samples were retrieved from mothers of 341 acute lymphoblastic leukemia cases and 61 other leukemia cases and from 1,212 control mothers. Sera were tested for antibodies to the genus Chlamydia, Helicobacter pylori, and Mycoplasma pneumoniae. Odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals, adjusted for sibship size, were calculated as estimates of relative risk. M. pneumoniae immunoglobulin M appeared to be associated with increased risk (odds ratio (OR) = 1.6), but the association lost statistical significance when the specificity of the immunoglobulin M was considered (OR = 1.5, 95% confidence interval: 0.9, 2.4). In Iceland, H. pylori immunoglobulin G was associated with increased risk of childhood leukemia in offspring (OR = 2.8, 95% confidence interval: 1.1, 6.9). Since H. pylori immunoglobulin G indicates chronic carriage of the microorganism, early colonization of the offspring probably differs between Iceland and Finland, two affluent countries.
To study the incidence of basal cell carcinoma (BCC) of the eyelid in Finland.
We studied 6241 cases of BCC of the eyelid reported to the nationwide Finnish Cancer Registry during 1953-97. We determined the age- and sex- specific incidence rates and overall rates adjusted for age to the world standard population, and social class- and occupation-specific standardized incidence ratios, with the total Finnish population as reference.
The incidence rates of BCC of the eyelid varied between 0.7 and 3.0 per 100 000 person-years in men and between 0.5 and 2.8 per 100 000 person-years in women during the study period. The age-adjusted incidence rates of BCC of the eyelid increased during 1953-87 (p
Few studies have suggested that elevated blood pressure might be associated with increased risk of lung cancer and that this association might vary according to smoking status. The aim of this study was to assess the effect of blood pressure and its possible interaction with smoking on lung cancer incidence in hypertensive patients. Lung cancer incidence was determined for 7,908 men enrolled in the hypertension register of the North Karelia Project between 1972 and 1988 by record linkage to the nationwide Finnish Cancer Registry. In a Cox regression model, both systolic and diastolic blood pressures were significant predictors of lung cancer, with a 10% increase in risk per 10-mmHg increment in blood pressure. In smokers, the age-adjusted hazard ratio associated with a 10-mmHg increment in diastolic blood pressure was 1.17 (95% confidence interval: 1.05, 1.29), and in nonsmokers it was 0.98 (95% confidence interval: 0.80, 1.16). For systolic blood pressure, these hazard ratios were 1.11 (95% confidence interval: 1.05, 1.17) for smokers and 1.04 (95% confidence interval: 0.95, 1.14) for nonsmokers. These findings suggest that high blood pressure levels are associated with increased risk of lung cancer in smoking, hypertensive men.
The relation between body mass index (BMI) and risk of cancer incidence is controversial. Cancer incidence during 1972-2008 in relation to BMI was investigated in a prospective cohort of 54,725 Finns aged 24-74 years and free of cancer at enrollment. Over a mean follow-up of 20.6 years, 8,429 (15.4%) incident cancers were recorded, 4,208 (49.9%) from men. Both parametric and nonparametric approaches were used to evaluate the shape of the relationship between BMI and incidence of cancer. BMI had a linear positive association with incidence of cancers of the colon, liver, kidney, bladder and all sites combined in men, and of cancers of the stomach, colon, gallbladder and ovary in women, an inverse association with incidence of cancers of the lung in men and the lung and breast in women, a J-shaped association with incidence of all cancers combined in women. High BMI in women was associated with an increased overall cancer risk in never smokers but a reduced risk in smokers. Elevated BMI was associated with an increased risk of incidence of cancers of certain sites.
To estimate the risk for breast cancer in Finnish women using postmenopausal estradiol (E2)-progestogen therapy.
All Finnish women over 50 years using E2-progestogen therapy for at least 6 months in 1994-2005 (N=221,551) were identified from the national medical reimbursement register and followed up for breast cancer incidence (n=6,211 cases) through the Finnish Cancer Registry to the end of 2005. The risk for breast cancer in E2-progestogen therapy users was compared with that in the general population.
The standardized incidence ratio for all types of breast cancer was not elevated within the first 3 years of use, but it rose to 1.31 (95% confidence interval 1.20-1.42) for the use from 3-5 years and to 2.07 (1.84-2.30) with 10 or more years of use. Exposure to sequential progestogen for 5 years or more was accompanied with a lower risk elevation (1.78, 1.64-1.90) than exposure to continuous use (2.44, 2.17-2.72). Oral and transdermal use of E2-progestogen therapy was associated with comparable risk elevations for breast cancer. The use of norethisterone acetate was accompanied with a higher risk after 5 years of use (2.03, 1.88-2.18) than that of medroxyprogesterone acetate (1.64, 1.49-1.79). The risk of lobular breast cancer increased sooner than that for ductal cancer and was detectable for E2-progestogen therapy use less than 3 years (1.35, 1.18-1.53). There was no excess risk of breast cancer with distant metastases among E2-progestogen therapy users.
The use of E2-progestogen therapy is associated with an increased risk for breast cancer after 3 years of use. The risk is lower for sequential than for continuous use, but comparable for oral and transdermal use. The risk elevation may not be uniform for all progestogens.
Comment On: Obstet Gynecol. 2009 Jan;113(1):74-8019104362