BACKGROUND: According to the WHO, insufficient attention is devoted to the problem of accident while more than one half of the death in children of 1 to 14 years of age in industrialized countries are caused by accidents. METHODS AND RESULTS: Nationwide statistical data from the Czech Republic have been evaluated and compared with those of selected European countries and the USA. In the years 1991-1993 average of 151 children died in the Czech Republic in the age group of 5- to 9-year olds. In 68 of them the cause of death was an injury that in almost half of the cases was due to a traffic accident. The trend in the mortality of children of the same age was assessed comparing the averages for 1950-1952 and 1991-1993. The overall mortality decreased by 68% while the greatest decline was in non-accident causes (75%). Mortality due to accidents decreased by 55% and that caused by motor vehicles by only 19%. The lowest mortality due to accidents was found in Sweden. CONCLUSIONS: The results show that mortality due to accidents and poisonings in younger school children in the Czech Republic is higher than, e.g. in Austria and Sweden. In order to be able to elaborate a draft of appropriate and effective preventive measures, it is necessary to obtain further information on accidents and poisonings in children that have not ended fatally.
Time series of standardized mortality from malignant neoplasms of the trachea, bronchi and lungs in 1965 to 1986 were examined by a group of programmes for computer supported prognoses. Czechoslovak data were compared with those from Austria, Sweden and England and Wales. Extrapolation of time series revealed conclusively that the development in Czechoslovak men is alarming. While in all compared countries there was in recent years a declining mortality, in Czechoslovakia the mortality is rising despite the fact that it is already highest among the compared countries. In women the position is less adverse, as due to the substantially lower absolute values in all compared countries, the values of standardized mortality in Sweden and England rise in an exponential manner, while in Czechoslovakia the increase is linear. From the prognosis ensues thus quite unequivocally that the development in Czechoslovakia in men is absolutely and relatively very unfavourable and in women relatively favourable.
BACKGROUND: Rett syndrome is an X-linked dominant neurodevelopmental disorder affecting 1 from 10,000 to 15,000 females worldwide. The responsible gene, encoding methyl-CpG binding protein 2 was recently identified. Methyl-CpG binding protein 2 is thought to act as a global transcriptional repressor. In the methyl-CpG binding protein 2 gene are known 5 prevalent mutations that cause Rett syndrome. Four of them are detectable by restriction analysis. In this study we present the results of the molecular study of four prevalent mutations in the gene for methyl-CpG binding protein 2 in Czech and Slovak patients with Rett syndrome. METHODS AND RESULTS: 22 females with Rett syndrome were investigated by methods of molecular biology. Restriction analysis and direct sequencing of PCR products revealed in methyl-CpG binding protein 2 gene 3 different mutations (T158M, R168X, R270X) in six unrelated patients with Rett syndrome. Mutation R306C, frequent in Great Britain and Sweden, was not detected in our group of patients with Rett syndrome. CONCLUSIONS: The diagnosis of Rett syndrome and genetic counselling in affected families should go out from the close cooperation of the pediatric, neurologic, and genetic departments with the specialized laboratories dealing with the molecular biological diagnosis.
Evaluation of the consumption of antimicrobial drugs is an important component of antibiotic policy and provides a picture of rationality of treatment. In the present paper, the authors analyzed the consumption of antibacterial agents of the ATC group J01 for systemic use in out-patient practice in Slovakia in 1999-2001. The data were taken from materials of all Slovak insurance companies provided by the Ministry of Health of the Slovak Republic. The paper evaluated the total out-patient consumption of antimicrobial agents and the financial costs of antibiotic therapy, analyzed the consumption of the individual groups of antibiotics and the consumption of individual agents, and compared the found out-patient consumption with that of Finland. The DDD values in the period under study gave evidence of a high but stable consumption of antibiotics. The analysis according to the groups of antibiotics revealed the dominance of penicillins with wider spectra, penicillins sensitive to beta-lactamases, and macrolides. The evaluation of individual antimicrobial agents showed a positive tendency of the growth of amoxicillin consumption, compensated by a decrease in the consumption of less advantageous ampicillin. The comparison of the Slovak and Finnish consumptions of macrolide antibiotics showed a prevailing consumption of roxitromycin and klaritromycin in Slovakia, and azitromycin in Finland. As far as cephalosporins are concerned, the preparations of the first generation dominated in Finland, and those of the second generation in Slovakia.
The paper offers a brief outline of the current state of geriatric psychiatry and psychopharmacology in Canada and partially in the USA. Major trends are described in clinical care, in organization and education, along with some basic historical comments. The important role of self-help groups is sketched. The contents of recent major scientific meetings illustrate the increasing emphasis in research in ageing, geriatric psychiatry and geriatric psychopharmacology. The developments are characterized by intimate connections between basic and applied research, and between clinical observations and experimental neurobiology. The analysis of developments in the current practice and research offers some insight into upcoming treatment strategies. The next decade in geriatric psychiatry will probably belong in particular to molecular biology, genetic, psycho-immunology and psychopharmacology.