We conducted a population-based cohort study to analyze the risk of developing cancers of the female genitals among 36,856 patients with a hospital discharge diagnosis of alcoholism (ICD-7: 307, 322; ICD-8: 291, 303; ICD-9: 291, 303, 305A) in Sweden between 1965 and 1995. The follow-up was done by linkages of national registries. Standardized incidence ratios (SIRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were computed based on nationwide specific cancer rates. The first year of follow-up was excluded from all analyses to minimize the impact of selection bias. We found that alcoholic women had excess risks for in situ cervical cancer (SIR, 1.7; 95% CI, 1.6-1.9), for invasive cervical cancer (SIR, 2.9; 95% CI, 2.4-3.5), and for cancer of the vagina (SIR, 4.6; 95% CI, 2.2-8.5) but not for cancer of the vulva (SIR, 1.0; 95% CI, 0.4-2.0). The fact that alcoholics had an excess risk also for the in situ cancer suggests that the observed excess in invasive cervical cancer may not only be attributable to less use of Pap smear screening among them. The alcoholic women may be at higher risk for the progression from human papillomavirus infection to a malignant lesion for lifestyle-related reasons (promiscuity, smoking, use of contraceptive hormones, and dietary deficiencies). We conclude that alcoholic women are at high risk for in situ and invasive cervical cancer and for cancer of the vagina.
To document the proportion of each herpes simplex virus (HSV) type in genital HSV infection and changes over time during a 10 year period.
Retrospective comparative study in sexually transmitted disease (STD) patients with genital HSV infection at the outpatient clinic for STD, Haukeland Hospital, Bergen, Norway.
HSV-2 was the major cause during the 80's, whereas HSV-1 constitutes a greater part of the cases during the 90's, especially in female patients and in the younger age groups with primary or initial disease, where HSV-1 is the causative viral type in up to 70-90% of the cases.
The documented change from HSV-2 towards HSV-1 in cases of genital HSV infection may have implications as to prognosis, future usefulness of vaccines, present and future usefulness of new type-specific serological tests.
We examined the dosing regimens, compliance, and outcomes of premature infants who received palivizumab within the Canadian Registry of Palivizumab (CARESS). Infants receiving =1 dose of palivizumab during the 2006-2011 respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) seasons were recruited across 30 sites. Respiratory illness events were captured monthly. Infants =32 completed weeks gestational age (GA) (Group 1) were compared to 33-35 completed weeks GA infants (Group 2) following prophylaxis. In total, 6,654 patients were analyzed (Group 1, n?=?5,183; Group 2, n?=?1,471). The mean GA was 29.9?±?2.9 versus 34.2?±?2.2 weeks for Groups 1 and 2, respectively. Group differences were significant (all p-values 5 household individuals, birth weight, and enrolment age. Overall, infants received 92.6 % of expected injections. Group 1 received significantly more injections, but a greater proportion of Group 2 received injections within recommended intervals. The hospitalization rates were similar for Groups 1 and 2 for respiratory illness (4.7 % vs. 3.7 %, p?=?0.1) and RSV (1.5 % vs. 1.4 %, p?=?0.3). Neither the time to first respiratory illness [hazard ratio?=?0.9, 95 % confidence interval (CI) 0.7-1.2, p?=?0.5] nor to first RSV hospitalization (hazard ratio?=?1.3, 95 % CI 0.8-2.2, p?=?0.3) were different. Compliance with RSV prophylaxis is high. Despite the higher number of palivizumab doses in infants =32 completed weeks GA, the two groups' respiratory illness and RSV-positive hospitalization rates were similar.
Solid organ transplant recipients are at increased risk of infection due to chronic immunosuppression. The incidence of varicella zoster virus (VZV) infection is known to be increased in these patients compared with the immunocompetent population. Previous reports suggested that these patients are likely to experience a morbid disease course. Few data currently exist on the course of VZV infections in pancreas or pancreas plus kidney (PK) transplant recipients.
The goal of this study was to evaluate the incidence and severity of VZV infections in pancreas or PK recipients.
We analyzed the transplantation patient database of the Royal Victoria Hospital, identifying 137 pancreas or PK transplantation procedures performed between January 1999 and October 2010, among which we included 98 patients in the study. We subsequently performed a retrospective chart review to evaluate the incidence and severity of VZV infections posttransplantation.
Our analysis revealed that 11/98 patients developed VZV infections. The majority of infections (~90.9%) occurred within the first 5 years. Most patients (63.6%) were treated on an outpatient basis, whereas only 4 (36.4%) were hospitalized with a mean hospital stay of 9.5 ± 8.42 days. The initial immunosuppressive regimen remained unchanged for the majority of patients. All patients experienced a mild disease course without intensive care unit admission or death. Only 3 patients (27.3%) developed postherpetic neuralgia.
These findings suggest that with timely diagnosis and proper treatment, most patients recover well from a VZV infection.
Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is the main cause of lower respiratory tract infections in children. Whilst highly seasonal, RSV dynamics can have either one-year (annual) or two-year (biennial) cycles. Furthermore, some countries show a 'delayed biennial' pattern, where the epidemic peak in low incidence years is delayed. We develop a compartmental model for RSV infection, driven by a seasonal forcing function, and conduct parameter space and bifurcation analyses to document parameter ranges that give rise to these different seasonal patterns. The model is sensitive to the birth rate, transmission rate, and seasonality parameters, and can replicate RSV dynamics observed in different countries. The seasonality parameter must exceed a threshold for the model to produce biennial cycles. Intermediate values of the birth rate produce the greatest delay in these biennial cycles, while the model reverts to annual cycles if the duration of immunity is too short. Finally, the existence of period doubling and period halving bifurcations suggests robust model dynamics, in agreement with the known regularity of RSV outbreaks. These findings help explain observed RSV data, such as regular biennial dynamics in Western Australia, and delayed biennial dynamics in Finland. From a public health perspective, our findings provide insight into the drivers of RSV transmission, and a foundation for exploring RSV interventions.
Human papillomaviruses (HPVs) play the major role in cervical carcinogenesis. The authors reevaluated the role of herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2) in this multistage process by conducting a longitudinal, nested case-control study using 1974-1993 data and comparing the results with those from a meta-analysis of studies. A Nordic cohort of 550,000 women was followed up for an average of 5 years, after which 178 cervical carcinoma cases and 527 controls were identified. HSV-2; HPV-16, HPV-18, and HPV-33; and Chlamydia trachomatis antibodies were determined at baseline by HSV-2 glycoprotein gG-2 and HPV virus-like-particle enzyme immunoassays and by using the microimmunofluorescence method. The relative risk of cervical carcinoma was calculated by conditional logistic regression. Longitudinal studies on HSV-2 and cervical neoplasia were identified through MEDLINE (National Library of Medicine, Bethesda, Maryland), and weighted mean relative risks were calculated. Smoking (relative risk = 1.6, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.1, 2.3) and HPV-16/HPV-18/HPV-33 (relative risk = 2.9, 95% CI: 1.9, 4.3) were both associated with cervical carcinoma. The smoking- and HPV-16/HPV-18/HPV-33-adjusted relative risks for HSV-2 were 1.0 (95% CI: 0.6, 1.7) and 0.7 (95% CI: 0.3, 1.6), respectively, for HPV seropositives. In the meta-analysis, the relative risk for HSV-2 was 0.9 (95% CI: 0.6, 1.3). In both sets of data, HSV-2 did not play a role in cervical carcinogenesis.
Herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2) infections of the central nervous system (CNS) are rare with meningitis as the most common clinical presentation. We have investigated the clinical spectrum of CNS infections in 49 adult consecutive patients with HSV-2 genome in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). HSV-2 in the CSF was determined by polymerase chain reaction (PCR), and patients were diagnosed as encephalitis or meningitis according to predefined clinical criteria by retrospective data information from consecutive clinical journals. The annual crude incidence rate of HSV-2 CNS disease was 0.26 per 100,000. 43 (88%) had meningitis of whom 8 (19%) had recurring lymphocytic meningitis. Six patients (12%) had encephalitis. 11 of 49 patients (22%) had sequelae recorded during follow-up. None died as a result of HSV-2 CNS disease. Thus, the clinical presentation of HSV-2 infection of the CNS is mainly meningitis but encephalitis does occur and neurological sequelae are common. Recurring lymphocytic meningitis is associated with reactivation of HSV-2 and the condition might be underdiagnosed.
A 12-month's study in Central Alaska shows that family pets are harboring a significant quantity of human intestinal pathogens. While previous investigators in Alaska have found up to 7% of the dogs harboring either Salmonella or Shigella, this study found approximately 18% harboring these plus an additional 9% harboring related, potentially pathogenic organisms. In addition, the study shows that dogs in the area (1) can harbor multiple species of Salmonella at one time, (2) appear to act as transient carriers, and (3) do not necessarily show signs of intestinal infection when the organisms are present. The organisms were found in the animals throughout the year. As a result of the long severe winter, the family pet usually lives in close proximity to human friends; thus it becomes a potential vector of some significance.
Human papillomavirus has emerged as the leading infectious cause of cervical and other anogenital cancers. We have studied the relation between human papillomavirus infection and the subsequent risk of anal and perianal skin cancer. A case-cohort study within two large Nordic serum banks to which about 760 000 individuals had donated serum samples was performed. Subjects who developed anal and perianal skin cancer during follow up (median time of 10 years) were identified by registry linkage with the nationwide cancer registries in Finland and Norway. Twenty-eight cases and 1500 controls were analysed for the presence of IgG antibodies to HPV 16, 18, 33 or 73, and odds ratios of developing anal and perianal skin cancer were calculated. There was an increased risk of developing anal and perianal skin cancer among subjects seropositive for HPV 16 (OR=3.0; 95%CI=1.1-8.2) and HPV 18 (OR=4.4; 95%CI=1.1-17). The highest risks were seen for HPV 16 seropositive patients above the age of 45 years at serum sampling and for patients with a lag time of less than 10 years. This study provides prospective epidemiological evidence of an association between infection with HPV 16 and 18 and anal and perianal skin cancer.
Among industrialized nations, the rate of rehospitalization in the United States for respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is approximately 30 per 1000, exceptions being noted for American Indians and Alaskan natives, two ethnic groups who tend toward higher rates of RSV hospitalization. In distinction Japan reports an admission rate of 60 per 1000 for RSV disease. Yet Japan ranks considerably lower than many of its western counterparts in premature births. Whether an RSV subtype, a new viral genotype or some other unifying characteristic exists that might explain the severity of adenovirus, parainfluenza and RSV infections in this region of Asia remains to be determined. Outcomes trials in the United States, Canada, United Kingdom, Denmark and Japan all identified crowding and exposure to tobacco smoke as significant and independent risk factors for disease severity of RSV. The epidemiology of RSV is largely consistent throughout Europe, with peak outbreaks occurring in December and January. In Europe RSV accounts for 42 to 45% of hospital admissions for lower respiratory tract infections in children younger than 2 years of age, and inpatient populations tend to be younger and to experience greater disease severity. For RSV bronchiolitis lengths of stay in European hospitals range from a low of 4 days to a high of 10 days.The Infección Respiratoria Infantil por Virus Respiratorio Sincitial Study Group in Spain conducted 2 prospective observational studies in 14 and 26 neonatal units, respectively, on nonprophylaxed neonates to determine hospitalization rates for respiratory syncytial viral illness during 2 consecutive RSV seasons. Throughout each respiratory season the study group followed premature infants of