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Climate change scenarios for the Hudson Bay region: An intermodel comparison

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature276018
Source
Climatic Change. 2005 Apr;69(2):269-297
Publication Type
Article
Date
Apr-2005
Author
Gagnon, AS
Gough, WA
Source
Climatic Change. 2005 Apr;69(2):269-297
Date
Apr-2005
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Canada
GCM
General circulation models
Hudson Bay
Sea ice
Abstract
General circulation models (GCMs) are unanimous in projecting warmer temperatures in an enhanced CO2 atmosphere, with amplification of this warming in higher latitudes. The Hudson Bay region, which is located in the Arctic and subarctic regions of Canada, should therefore be strongly influenced by global warming. In this study, we compare the response of Hudson Bay to a transient warming scenario provided by six-coupled atmosphere-ocean models. Our analysis focuses on surface temperature, precipitation, sea-ice coverage, and permafrost distribution. The results show that warming is expected to peak in winter over the ocean, because of a northward retreat of the sea-ice cover. Also, a secondary warming peak is observed in summer over land in the Canadian and Australian-coupled GCMs, which is associated with both a reduction in soil moisture conditions and changes in permafrost distribution. In addition, a relationship is identified between the retreat of the sea-ice cover and an enhancement of precipitation over both land and oceanic surfaces. The response of the sea-ice cover and permafrost layer to global warming varies considerably among models and thus large differences are observed in the projected regional increase in temperature and precipitation. In view of the important feedbacks that a retreat of the sea-ice cover and the distribution of permafrost are likely to play in the doubled and tripled CO2 climates of Hudson Bay, a good representation of these two parameters is necessary to provide realistic climate change scenarios. The use of higher resolution regional climate model is recommended to develop scenarios of climate change for the Hudson Bay region.
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Climate change, wellbeing and resilience in the Weenusk First Nation at Peawanuck: The moccasin telegraph goes global

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature96605
Source
Rural Remote Health. 2010 Apr-Jun;10(2):1333
Publication Type
Article
Date
Apr-Jun-2010
Author
Lemelin, H
Matthews, D
Mattina, C
McIntyre, N
Johnston, M
Koster, R
Weenusk First Nation At Peawanuck
Author Affiliation
School of Outdoor Recreation, Parks and Tourism, Lakehead University, Thunder Bay, Ontario, Canada. harvey.lemelin@lakeheadu.ca
Source
Rural Remote Health. 2010 Apr-Jun;10(2):1333
Date
Apr-Jun-2010
Language
English
Geographic Location
Canada
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Canada
Canadian sub-Arctic
Climate change
Cree
Hudson Bay
Knowledge systems
Lakehead University
Northern Ontario
Weenusk First Nation at Peawanuck
Abstract
The Cree of Northern Ontario, Canada, have proved resilient and adaptable to social and environmental changes. However, the rapidity of climate change impacts in the Hudson Bay Lowlands of the Canadian sub-Arctic is challenging this resiliency. A collaborative project conducted with the Weenusk First Nation at Peawanuck and researchers at Lakehead University used the concept of wellbeing to explore the impact of climate change on current subsistence activities, resource management, and conservation strategies, while considering the implications of globalization on climate change awareness. This article describes the analysis of 22 interviews conducted with members of the Weenusk First Nation at Peawanuck. Findings indicate that residents are concerned with a variety of changes in the environment and their ability to use the land. For example, they noted changes in travel routes on water and land, often attributing these to geomorphic changes in the coastal landscapes along Hudson Bay. They also noted the disappearance of particular insects and bird species, and variations in the distribution of particular fauna and flora. Possible impacts of these changes on the community's wellbeing and resiliency are examined. Another major theme that arose from the analysis was the impact of traditional modes of communication (eg traditional knowledge, radio, newspaper) and newer forms (eg satellite television and the internet) on Indigenous people's understanding of climate change. Given that few researchers have acknowledged or recognized the globalization of the moccasin telegraph (ie the traditional mode of communication between First Nations), a discussion of this phenomenon and its significance for understanding emerging knowledge systems in small, remote First Nation communities is central to this article.
PubMed ID
20568911 View in PubMed
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Climate memory and long-range forecasting of sea ice conditions in Hudson Strait

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature276020
Source
Polar Geography. 2005;29(1):17-26
Publication Type
Article
Date
2005
Author
Gough, WA
Houser, C
Source
Polar Geography. 2005;29(1):17-26
Date
2005
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Forecasts
Hudson Bay
Hudson Strait
Sea ice
Abstract
Hudson Strait plays a crucial role for navigation into and out of Hudson Bay. The Strait is ice-covered for eight months of the year. We demonstrate the ability to forecast ice conditions, particularly ice formation and retreat, up to seven months in advance. Sea ice retreat and formation for three locations in Hudson Strait has been successfully forecasted for the years 2000-2003 using sea ice data collected from 1971 to 1999. On average, forecasts for the date of sea ice formation were within a week of the actual formation date, the temporal resolution of the sea ice data. Forecasts for the date of sea ice retreat were within the resolution of the sea ice data at the easternmost site and ±11 and 15 days at the middle and westernmost sites, respectively. Inclusion of the average air temperature of the preceding ice-free season improved the average forecast of ice retreat at the western site by six days while only marginally affecting the other two sites. This initial attempt exploits climate memory which may be applicable elsewhere.
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From a treatment failure to a community approach: Otitis media among Inuit of the Hudson Bay

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature102275
Source
Pages 688-692 in G. Pétursdóttir et al., eds. Circumpolar Health 93. Proceedings of the 9th International Congress on Circumpolar Health, Reykjavík, Iceland, June 20-25, 1993. Arctic Medical Research. 1994;53(Suppl.2)
Publication Type
Article
Date
1994
Arctic Medical Research vol. 53: Suppl. 2,pp. 688-692.1994 From a Treatment Failure to a Community Approach: Otitis Media among Inuit of the Hudson Bay Marie-Josee Papillon Depanement de medecine sociale et preventive, Universite Laval, Quebec Canada. Abstract: Otitis Media is a common
  1 document  
Author
Papillon, M
Papillon, M-J
Author Affiliation
Département de médecine sociale et préventive, Université Laval, Québec, Canada
Source
Pages 688-692 in G. Pétursdóttir et al., eds. Circumpolar Health 93. Proceedings of the 9th International Congress on Circumpolar Health, Reykjavík, Iceland, June 20-25, 1993. Arctic Medical Research. 1994;53(Suppl.2)
Date
1994
Language
English
Geographic Location
Canada
Publication Type
Article
Digital File Format
Text - PDF
Keywords
Antibiotics
Children
Communication
Community health
Compliance
Drug Utilization Review
Failure
Hudson Bay
Information
Instructions
Inuit
Otitis media
Quebec
Study
Treatment
Abstract
Otitis media is a common health problem with an unusually high success rate to antibiotic treatment in the pediatric population. However, within the Native community of the Hudson Bay, a lower success rate to recommended antibiotic regimen was observed. Two hypotheses were put forward: Is pharmacotherapy correctly used? Could the transcultural context introduce a communication problem such as a break in the flow of the clinical information accompanying the treatment? A drug utilization review (DUR) showed that antibiotics were appropriately prescribed in compliance with accepted criteria. A qualitative, exploratory, and inductive approach was applied to understand treatment failure and the place of communication as seen by the mothers, by interpreters working in the nursing stations, and by different health professionals. The model elaborated before data collection to illustrate the flow of clinical information between protagonists according to their culture (biomedical or Inuit) and placing interpreters as the cultural link was tested. We observed that the flow of information was not broken. Nevertheless, a gap between instructions given to the patients and their way of living and culture was observed. Antibiotic compliance might explain part of the treatment failure but certainly not all of it. Further research is needed to explore new interventions in terms of OM treatment. This work allowed us to recognize treatment failure of OM as a community health problem needing a systemic answer.
Documents
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The journals of William Fraser Tolmie, physician and fur trader.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature288669
Source
Vancouver, Can. : Mitchell Press. 413 p.
Publication Type
Book/Book Chapter
Date
1963
Author
Tolmie, William Fraser
Source
Vancouver, Can. : Mitchell Press. 413 p.
Date
1963
Language
English
Geographic Location
U.S.
Canada
Publication Type
Book/Book Chapter
Physical Holding
University of Alaska Anchorage
Keywords
Physicians -- Canada -- Personal Narratives
Victoria, British Columbia
Hudson's Bay Company
Frontier medicine
Notes
ALASKA R464.T6A3 1963
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Sea-surface temperature in Hudson Bay and Hudson Strait in relation to air temperature and ice cover breakup, 1985-2009

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature276056
Source
Journal of Marine Systems. 2011 Jul;87(1):66-78
Publication Type
Article
Date
Jul-2011
Author
Galbraith, PS
Larouche, P
Author Affiliation
Ocean and Environmental Science Branch, Maurice Lamontagne Institute, Department of Fisheries and Oceans Canada, Mont-Joli Qc, Canada
Source
Journal of Marine Systems. 2011 Jul;87(1):66-78
Date
Jul-2011
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Air temperature
Climate variability
Hudson Bay
Sea-surface temperature
Abstract
Sea-surface weekly average temperatures derived from NOAA-AVHRR remote sensing data are analyzed for the period 1985-2009 for Hudson Bay and Hudson Strait, and compared to weekly ice cover data obtained from the Canadian Ice Service for the period 1971-2009 as well as to monthly average air temperature at four stations around Hudson Bay and to four around Hudson Strait. Results show a decreasing trend in the breakup date of the sea-ice in Hudson Strait of 5.6 days per decade since 1971 as well as an interannual variability of 5°C in the Hudson Bay average SST in August between extreme years. There is good correlation in Hudson Bay between average SST in August and average air temperature anomalies at four meteorological weather stations (R2 = 0.80) and with the percentage of open water from June to August (R2 = 0.80). Climatology for SST of the warmest week of the year is presented, and the variability of different regions within Hudson Bay is discussed. One area in southwestern Hudson Bay is shown to exhibit the highest interannual variability, having nearly the warmest surface waters in some years and nearly the coldest in others. The historical observed variability of SST and ice cover is compared to expected changes in the literature that are associated with climate change.
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Sensitivity of Hudson Bay Sea ice and ocean climate to atmospheric temperature forcing

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature276058
Source
Climate Dynamics. 2011 May;36(9):1835-1849
Publication Type
Article
Date
May-2011
Author
Joly, S
Senneville, S
Caya, D
Saucier, FJ
Source
Climate Dynamics. 2011 May;36(9):1835-1849
Date
May-2011
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Atmospheric variability
Climate model
Hudson Bay
Ocean heat
Sea ice
Abstract
A regional sea-ice-ocean model was used to investigate the response of sea ice and oceanic heat storage in the Hudson Bay system to a climate-warming scenario. Projections of air temperature (for the years 2041-2070; effective CO2 concentration of 707-950 ppmv) obtained from the Canadian Regional Climate Model (CRCM 4.2.3), driven by the third-generation coupled global climate model (CGCM 3) for lateral atmospheric and land and ocean surface boundaries, were used to drive a single sensitivity experiment with the delta-change approach. The projected change in air temperature varies from 0.8°C (summer) to 10°C (winter), with a mean warming of 3.9°C. The hydrologic forcing in the warmer climate scenario was identical to the one used for the present climate simulation. Under this warmer climate scenario, the sea-ice season is reduced by 7-9 weeks. The highest change in summer sea-surface temperature, up to 5°C, is found in southeastern Hudson Bay, along the Nunavik coast and in James Bay. In central Hudson Bay, sea-surface temperature increases by over 3°C. Analysis of the heat content stored in the water column revealed an accumulation of additional heat, exceeding 3 MJ m-3, trapped along the eastern shore of James and Hudson bays during winter. Despite the stratification due to meltwater and river runoff during summer, the shallow coastal regions demonstrate a higher capacity of heat storage. The maximum volume of dense water produced at the end of winter was halved under the climate-warming perturbation. The maximum volume of sea ice is reduced by 31% (592 km3) while the difference in the maximum cover is only 2.6% (32,350 km2). Overall, the depletion of sea-ice thickness in Hudson Bay follows a southeast-northwest gradient. Sea-ice thickness in Hudson Strait and Ungava Bay is 50% thinner than in present climate conditions during wintertime. The model indicates that the greatest changes in both sea-ice climate and heat content would occur in southeastern Hudson Bay, James Bay, and Hudson Strait.
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A step-change in the date of sea-ice breakup in western Hudson Bay

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature275997
Source
Arctic. 2010 Jun;63(2);155-164
Publication Type
Article
Date
Jun-2010
  1 website  
Author
Scott, JBT
Marshall, GJ
Source
Arctic. 2010 Jun;63(2);155-164
Date
Jun-2010
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Breakup
Climate change
Hudson Bay
Polar bear
Sea ice
Abstract
Over the last four decades there has been a trend to earlier summer breakup of the sea ice in western Hudson Bay, Canada. As this sea ice is critical for the polar bears that use it for hunting, the earlier breakup is believed to be a factor in the declining health of the regional polar bear population. Analysis of the change to earlier breakup using passive microwave satellite data is problematic because of currently unquantifiable systematic errors between different satellites. Analysis using Canadian sea-ice charts from 1971 to 2008 shows that the change to earlier breakup is best represented by a 12-day step. This step occurs from 1988 to 1989 with no significant trend before or after the step. Although not as great as the three-week gradual change suggested by previous studies, this change is still significant. An increase in regional southwesterly winds during the first three weeks of June and a corresponding increase in surface temperature are shown to be likely contributing factors to this earlier breakup. It remains to be seen whether these changes in atmospheric circulation might be ascribed to human actions or simply to natural climate variability.
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8 records – page 1 of 1.