Ethnic and gender discrimination in a variety of markets has been documented in several populations. We conducted an online field experiment to examine ethnic and gender discrimination in the private rental housing market in Finland. We sent 1459 inquiries regarding 800 apartments. We compared responses to standardized apartment inquiries including fictive Arabic-sounding, Finnish-sounding or Swedish-sounding female or male names. We found evidence of discrimination against Arabic-sounding names and male names. Inquiries including Arabic-sounding male names had the lowest probability of receiving a response, receiving a response to about 16% of the inquiries made, while Finnish-sounding female names received a response to 42% of the inquires. We did not find any evidence of the landlord's gender being associated with the discrimination pattern. The findings suggest that both ethnic and gender discrimination occur in the private rental housing market in Finland.
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BACKGROUND: Some patients with comorbidity of severe mental illness and substance abuse--often called patients with dual diagnosis--are in need of supported housing. The extent of this need was one of the aspects of a survey conducted by the Norwegian Board of Health in 1999. Findings concerning housing from one part of the survey, which included inpatients in psychiatric hospitals and clinics, are presented in this paper. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The survey was performed as a cross-sectional study of 310 dually diagnosed inpatients in Norwegian psychiatric institutions on 27 January 1999. Their housing at the time of admission, planned housing at discharge and ideal housing in the opinion of the clinician who knew the patient best--mainly a psychiatrist--were registered. RESULTS: At admission, 3% were living in supported housing, while such housing was planned for 10% on discharge. However, clinicians evaluated that 43% ideally were in need of supported housing, most of them with support at daytime, but a substantial number needed support night and day. INTERPRETATION: The need for supported housing for patients with dual diagnosis is of significant magnitude and represents a challenge for communities as well as psychiatric services.