Acrylamide in baked and toasted wheat and rye bread was studied in relation to levels of asparagine in flour, dough, bread and toasts. Asparagine was consumed during bread preparation resulting in reduced acrylamide content in the products. In wheat bread, 12% of the asparagine initially present in the flour (0.14 g kg(-1)) remained after yeast fermentation and baking; for rye bread, 82% of asparagine remained after sourdough fermentation and baking. Asparagine present in untoasted wheat bread had totally reacted after hard toasting. Toasted wheat and rye bread slices contained 11-161 and 27-205 microg kg(-1) acrylamide, respectively, compared to untoasted wheat and rye bread with
A laboratory model of the cyanobacterial community of the Kotel'nikovskii hot spring (Baikal Region) was developed. A step-by-step description of the algocenosis formation along both the time and temperature gradient was given. The natural and laboratory mats were compared, and the major differences in the qualitative and quantitative composition of the cyanobacterial community were revealed. The laboratory algocenosis was stratified by species composition and was characterized by rapid replacement of the dominant cyanobacterial species depending on the temperature gradient. The formation of the community structure occurred over the 18 days of the experiment. In space and time, the sequence of species emergence in the cyanobacterial mat was as follows: Mastigocladus laminosus --> Phormidium tenue --> Ph. ambiguum --> Ph. valderiae. The species composition of the laboratory mat was similar to that of the natural mat; however it was found to be less diverse.
Opioids alter resting state brain oscillations by multiple and complex factors, which are still to be elucidated. To increase our knowledge, multi-channel electroencephalography (EEG) was subjected to multivariate pattern analysis (MVPA), to identify the most descriptive frequency bands and scalp locations altered by remifentanil in healthy volunteers. Sixty-two channels of resting EEG followed by independent measures of pain scores to heat and bone pain were recorded in 21 healthy males before and during remifentanil infusion in a placebo-controlled, double-blind crossover study. EEG frequency distributions were extracted by a continuous wavelet transform and normalized into delta, theta, alpha, beta and gamma bands. Alterations relative to pre-treatment responses were calculated for all channels and used as input to the MVPA. Compared to placebo, remifentanil increased the delta band and decreased the theta and alpha band oscillations as a mean over all channels (all p = 0.007). The most discriminative channels in these frequency bands were F1 in delta (83.33%, p = 0.0023) and theta bands (95.24%, p
High or low ambient temperatures pose a risk factor for the worsening or onset of psychiatric disorders. The aim of this study was to investigate the association between ambient temperature and psychiatric emergency visits in an urban region in a temperate climate. The daily number of visits to a psychiatric emergency room (PEVs) at Sahlgrenska University Hospital, Gothenburg, Sweden and the daily mean temperature were extracted for the study period 1 July 2012 to 31 December 2017. Case-crossover analysis with distributed lag non-linear models was used to analyse the data by season. The warm season was defined as May to August and the cold season as November to February. Shorter lags periods were used for the warm season than the cold season. In the analysis, temperatures at the 95th percentile was associated with 14% (95% confidence interval (CI): 2%, 28%) increase in PEVs at lag 0?3 and 22% (95%CI: 6%, 40%) for lags 0?14 during the warm season, relative to the seasonal minimum effect temperature (MET). During the cold season temperatures at the 5th percentile were associated with 25% (95% CI: -8%, 13%) and 18% (95% CI: -30%, 98%) increase in PEVs at lags 0?14 and 0?21 respectively. We observed an increased number of PEVs at high and low temperatures; however, not to a statistically significant extent for low temperatures. Our findings are similar to what has been found for somatic diseases and in studies of other mental health outcomes in regions with more extreme climates. This merits the inclusion of individuals with psychiatric disorders in awareness planning for climate warning systems.
Periods of unusually hot weather, especially in temperate climates, carry with them a burden of morbidity and mortality, particularly in urban areas. With lessening debate on its origins, and signs of global warming already apparent, it is becoming imperative for public health practitioners to recognize and predict the risks of "heat waves", and to develop protective community responses to them. This study makes use of historical data and a methodology developed previously to examine the pattern of hot weather experienced over the last five decades in the City of Toronto, and to assess the associated burden of mortality.
Synoptic classification of air masses based on meteorological data for Toronto was used, to assign the annual mean burden of illness (in terms of elevated mortality) associated with hot weather and air pollution. Then, coefficients relating daily mortality risk to historical daily weather and air quality data were determined with a model system that (for each air mass) assessed the factors that contributed to day-to-day variability in mortality.
Over the period of study, there were 120 (95% CI: 105-135) heat-related deaths on average per year, with great variability from year to year, reflecting the variability of hot weather. Mortality was greatest in July and August, when the greatest number of multi-day heat episodes occurred. Furthermore, the longer the episode, the greater was the daily risk for mortality.
The method can be used to forecast the risk of heat-related mortality, and to facilitate the development of public health responses to mitigate that risk.