Exceptional amount of snow led to snow removal attempts from the rooftops resulting in a relative unique and extraordinary epidemic of accidental falls in winter of 2010.
The injury pattern, hospital care, surgical operations, and the total costs of the primary hospital stay of accidentally fallen patients treated in Helsinki University Hospital trauma unit were analyzed.
Forty-six patients were admitted to hospital during the study period of three months. Majority of the patients were males (N?=?43, 93%) with the average age of 52.9 years. Seven patients were admitted to ICU. The average length of primary hospital stay was 4.7 days with 0% mortality. Total amount of fractures was 65 (63%) of all 97 injuries. The most common injuries were fractures of upper and lower extremity, and spinal column.
Preventing similar unnecessary epidemics of accidental falls in the future it is important to have professional opinion of the need of snow removal along with understanding of the risk of injury. Wearing appropriate safety equipments, and use professional help when necessary is advisable.
PURPOSE: To get an informative and detailed picture of the resource utilization in a radiology department in order to support its pricing and management. MATERIAL AND METHODS: A system based mainly on the theoretical foundations of activity-based costing (ABC) was designed, tested and compared with conventional costing. The study was performed at the Pediatric Unit of the Department of Radiology, Oulu University Hospital. The material consisted of all the 7,452 radiological procedures done in the unit during the first half of 1994, when both methods of costing where in use. Detailed cost data were obtained from the hospital financial and personnel systems and then related to activity data captured in the radiology information system. RESULTS: The allocation of overhead costs was greatly reduced by the introduction of ABC compared to conventional costing. The overhead cost as a percentage of total costs dropped to one-fourth of total costs, from 57% to 16%. The change of unit costs of radiological procedures varied from -42% to +82%. CONCLUSION: Costing is much more detailed and precise, and the percentage of unspecified allocated overhead costs diminishes drastically when ABC is used. The new information enhances effective departmental management, as the whole process of radiological procedures is identifiable by single activities, amenable to corrective actions and process improvement.
OBJECTIVE. Severity of acute pancreatitis (AP) can vary from a mild to a fulminant disease with high morbidity and mortality. Cost analysis has, however, hitherto been sparse. The aim of this study was to calculate the cost of acute pancreatitis, both including hospital costs and costs due to loss of production. MATERIAL AND METHODS. All adult patients treated at Skane University Hospital, Lund, during 2009-2010, were included. A severity grading was conducted and cost analysis was performed on an individual basis. RESULTS. Two hundred and fifty-two patients with altogether 307 admissions were identified. Mean age was 60 ± 19 years, and 121 patients (48%) were men. Severe AP (SAP) was diagnosed in 38 patients (12%). Thirteen patients (5%) died. Acute biliary pancreatitis was more costly than alcohol induced AP (p
Despite very little confirming evidence, one of the most pervasive beliefs about dying is that terminally ill people receive a great deal of health care in the last few days, weeks, or months of life. A secondary analysis of 1992/93 through 1996/97 Alberta inpatient hospital abstracts data was undertaken to explore and describe hospital use over the five years before death by all Albertans who died in acute care hospital beds during the 1996/97 year (n = 7,429). There were four key findings: (1) hospital use varied, but was most often low, (2) the last hospital stay was infrequently resource intensive, (3) age, gender, and illness did not distinguish use, and (4) most ultra-high users were rural residents, with the majority of care episodes taking place in small, rural hospitals.
The financial costs associated with Adverse Events (AEs) for older patients (> or = 65 years) in Canadian hospitals are unknown. The objective of this paper is to describe and compare costs between patients who experienced an AE and those who did not during an acute hospital admission to a tertiary care facility. Patients with an AE had twice the hospital length of stay (20.2 versus 9.8 days, p
Some hip fracture patients need one or more reoperations because of complications following initial operative treatment.
The aim of this study was to identify all further surgical interventions in a cohort of patients with hip fractures over a period of 8 years after index fracture. Immediate direct costs of these reoperations were also calculated.
This retrospective study investigated 221 consecutive patients with hip fractures operated on at two different hospitals in southeastern Finland. The study period in hospital A was from 1 February 2003 to 31 January 2004, and in hospital B from 1 February 2003 to 30 April 2004. About 50% were femoral neck fractures, 41% trochanteric fractures, and 9% subtrochanteric fractures. Patients' medical records were checked from the hospital records and confirmed manually. Short- and long-term complications were recorded. Survival analysis was performed using a life-table method. The actual costs for reoperations and other further procedures for each patient were calculated using diagnosis-related groups-based costs for both hospitals in 2012.
A total of 20 patients (9%) needed reoperations. Overall, 10 patients (8.9%) with a femoral neck fracture (n = 112), 8 patients (8.7%) with trochanteric fracture (n = 92), and 2 patients (10.5%) with subtrochanteric fracture (n = 19) were reoperated on. The median interval between the primary operation of the acute hip fracture (n = 20) and the first reoperation was about 300 days (range: 2 weeks to 82 months). Among the women reoperated on, the excess mortality was lower than among those undergoing a single operation. The median costs of treatment per patient with one or more reoperations were ?13,422 in hospital A (range: ?1616-?61,755), ?11,076 in hospital B (range: ?1540-?17,866), and ?12,850 in the total study group (p = 0.43). In the case of infections (3 patients), the mean costs per patient were ?28,751 (range: ?11,076-?61,755).
Almost 10% of hip fracture patients required reoperations, and these reoperations caused significant direct costs to health care. However, direct costs account for only approximately 25% of the first year's total costs. These costs should be taken into account when evaluating the economics of hip fractures and the burden of health care.
This article in the supplement issue on the Performance, Effectiveness, and Costs of Treatment episodes (PERFECT)-project describes the PERFECT AMI (acute myocardial infarction) Database, which is developed to measure the performance of hospitals and hospital districts in Finland. We analyse annual trends and regional differences in performance indicators and whether the utilisation of services and costs of hospital care are related to improvement in survival of AMI patients.
The study population consists of ten annual cohorts (1998-2007) of patients hospitalised for AMI.
Since 1998 the treatment pattern has changed rather radically, the utilisation rate of percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) has increased and coronary procedures have been performed earlier after myocardial infarction. Outcome measured by various measures of mortality has improved considerably. However, trends in the development of the use of services and outcomes are not similar between hospital districts. An increase in cost was positively and statistically significantly related to decrease in mortality, but the effect was not very strong.
There is potential for decreased mortality from actions that do not increase the costs and for enhancing performance in the regions and hospitals with poor performance.
Vagus nerve stimulation (VNS) therapy is an established method for treating patients with refractory seizures. Although the initial cost of the device is about 10,000 US dollars, the battery life of the model 100 implanted in the patients in this analysis can exceed 5 years at standard settings. It is important to understand what type of cost-benefit can be expected after implantation. Our aim was to assess unplanned hospital costs 18 months before and 18 months after VNS implantation in 43 patients. The VNS therapy system was implanted according to standard procedures and stimulation of 0.75 to 2.0 mA was delivered either as 30 seconds on and 5 minutes off or 7 seconds on and 14 seconds off. Seizure frequency was calculated before and after 18 months of treatment. During this time no changes were made with other therapies for epilepsy. Hospitalization for emergency room (ER) visits, ward stays, and intensive care days were calculated according to the costs at Sahlgrenska University Hospital in Sweden. Therapy response was defined as 25% or greater reduction in seizure frequency. For all patients, intensive care unit (ICU) costs were reduced from 46,875 to 0 US dollars, ER visits from 13,000 to 9,000 US dollars, and ward stays from 151,125 to 21,375 US dollars. Total hospital costs for the 43 patients studied before VNS therapy were 211,000 US dollars and after 18 months of treatment were reduced to 30,375 US dollars, an average annual cost savings of approximately 3,000 US dollars per patient. The cost savings applied to all patients, irrespective of whether they responded to VNS therapy. VNS therapy resulted in annual reductions of approximately 3000 US dollars in unplanned hospital costs per study patient. Such direct savings sustained over the battery life of the VNS therapy system can equal or exceed the purchase price of the device.
The objective was to determine the average cost per quality-adjusted life year (QALY) gained of treating trauma victims at a tertiary trauma hospital and to determine the cost-effectiveness of trauma care at this center. The setting was a tertiary trauma center in the province of Ontario, Canada. The study population consisted of consecutive trauma admissions with ISS > 12 from April, 1994 to April, 1996. The study was of a retrospective cohort design with a cross-sectional survey.
The hospital perspective was taken. Costs were determined from a retrospective cohort using a hospital-based case-costing system. Utility estimates for calculation of QALYs gained were obtained using a cross-sectional survey design. Cost-effectiveness was determined by estimating the incremental cost/QALY attributable to treatment at the trauma center. Sensitivity analysis was employed to vary assumptions about the proportion of costs and increased survival.
484 patients with a median age of 39 years and a median ISS of 22 were studied. The average cost per QALY was $1,721, with a maximum value of $3,861. The increase in cost per QALY gained for treatment in a tertiary care center as opposed to a nontrauma center was $4,303, assuming a 20% increase in survival and assuming that the existence of the center increased the cost of care by 50%. The incremental cost/QALY ranged from $191 to $15,492 in the sensitivity analysis varying assumptions about the increased proportion of costs and survival attributable to care at the tertiary trauma center.
This is the first economic evaluation of tertiary trauma care which includes both costs as opposed to charges as well as estimates of the QALYs gained. The results suggest that tertiary trauma care is cost-effective and less costly than treatment programs for other disease conditions when the quality-adjusted life years gained are included in the evaluation.
OBJECTIVE: We aimed to determine whether general practitioner GP hospitals, compared with alternative modes of health care, are cost-saving. METHODS: Based on a study of admissions (n = 415) to fifteen GP hospitals in the Finnmark county of Norway during 8 weeks in 1992, a full 1-year patient throughput in GP hospitals was estimated. The alternative modes of care (general hospital, nursing home or home care) were based on assessments by the GPs handling the individual patients. The funds transferred to finance GP hospitals were taken as the cost of GP hospitals, while the cost of alternative care was based on municipality and hospital accounts, and standard charges for patient transport. RESULTS: The estimated total annual operating cost of GP hospitals was 32.2 million NOK (10 NOK = 1 Pound) while the cost of alternative care was in total 35.9 million NOK. Sensitivity analyses, under a range of assumptions, indicate that GP care in hospitals incurs the lowest costs to society. CONCLUSION: GP hospitals are likely to provide health care at lower costs than alternative modes of care.