Decline in both telomere length and physical fitness over the life course may contribute to increased risk of several chronic diseases. The relationship between telomere length and aerobic and muscular fitness is not well characterized. We examined whether there are cross-sectional associations of mean relative leukocyte telomere length (LTL) with objective measures of aerobic fitness, muscle strength, and muscle endurance, using data on 31-year-old participants of the Northern Finland Birth Cohort 1966 (n = 4,952-5,205, varying by exposure-outcome analysis). Aerobic fitness was assessed by means of heart rate measurement following a standardized submaximal step test; muscular fitness was assessed by means of a maximal isometric handgrip strength test and a test of lower-back trunk muscle endurance. Longer LTL was associated with higher aerobic fitness and better trunk muscle endurance in models including adjustment for age, sex, body mass index, socioeconomic position, diet, smoking, alcohol consumption, physical activity level, and C-reactive protein. In a sex-stratified analysis, LTL was not associated with handgrip strength in either men or women. LTL may relate to aspects of physical fitness in young adulthood, but replication of these findings is required, along with further studies to help assess directions and causality in these associations.
The clinico-epidemiological analysis and comparison of the data of a comprehensive study of suprasegmental vegetative regulation revealed an appreciable tension of the adaptation mechanisms in the acute period in 55 children with the meningeal form of tick-borne encephalitis (TE). Alterations in vegetative regulation in children suffering from TE were found to be coupled with impairment of the stem-hemispheric interrelations, reduction in the level of nonspecific activation, rise of convulsive preparedness of the brain. A correlation was established between alterations in the main parameters of variational cardiointervalography, character of brain bioelectric activity and the disease gravity. The data obtained can be employed as criteria for predicting the disease outcome and assessment of TE treatment in children.
Epidemiological research indicates that long-chain n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC n-3 PUFA) improve insulin resistance. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of seafood consumption on insulin resistance in overweight participants during energy restriction.
In this 8 week dietary intervention, 324 participants (20-40 years, BMI 27.5-32.5 kg/m(2), from Iceland, Spain and Ireland) were randomised by computer to one of four energy-restricted diets (-30E%) of identical macronutrient composition but different LC n-3 PUFA content: control (n = 80; no seafood; single-blinded); lean fish (n = 80; 150 g cod, three times/week); fatty fish (n = 84; 150 g salmon, three times/week); (4) fish oil (n = 80; daily docosahexaenoic/eicosapentaenoic acid capsules, no other seafood; single-blinded). Fasting glucose, insulin, adiponectin, plasma triacylglycerol and fatty acids in erythrocyte membrane were measured at baseline and endpoint. Insulin resistance was calculated using the homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR). Linear models with fixed effects and covariates were used to investigate the effects of seafood consumption on fasting insulin and HOMA-IR at endpoint in comparison with the control group.
Of the participants, 278 (86%) completed the intervention. Fish oil intake was a significant predictor of fasting insulin and insulin resistance after 8 weeks, and this finding remained significant even after including weight loss, triacylglycerol reduction, increased LC n-3 PUFA in membranes or adiponectin changes as covariates in the statistical analysis. Weight loss was also a significant predictor of improvements.
LC n-3 PUFA consumption during energy reduction exerts positive effects on insulin resistance in young overweight individuals, independently from changes in body weight, triacylglycerol, erythrocyte membrane or adiponectin.
In 98 athletes of cyclic kinds of sport the biochemical parameters of blood after long physical loadings were studied. The level of ATP, glucose, LDG, creatinine, general calcium and ionized calcium of blood plasma, POL indices and antioxidant system (AOS) were accessed. During adaptation to significant physical loadings, LDG and ATP level were reduced; the parameters of POL and creatinine were raised; AOS, general calcium and ionized calcium were insignificantly reduced. These shifts were less expressed in athletes with good adaptation and it is possible to use these parameters as a criterion of a degree of adaptation in high class athletes.
The cardiovascular and thermoregulatory systems are considered to be susceptible in the aged population, but little is known about baseline cardiac and thermoregulatory homeostasis in rodent models of aging. Radiotransmitters were implanted in male, Brown Norway rats obtained at 4, 12, and 24 months to monitor the electrocardiogram (ECG), interbeat interval (IBI), heart rate (HR), core temperature (Tc), and motor activity (MA). There was no significant effect of age on resting HR and MA. Daytime Tc of the 24-month-old rats was significantly elevated above those of the 4- and 12-month-old groups. Variability of the IBI was highest in the 24-month-old rats. The elevation in daytime Tc beginning around 8 months of age may be a physiological biomarker of aging and may be an important factor to consider in studies using caloric restriction-induced hypothermia to increase longevity.
The review analyzes the mechanisms of hormonal regulation of the exchange of Ca ions in the organisms and the role of changes in their extra- and intracellular balance in the development of diabetes mellitus. Recent data about changes in intracellular Ca homeostasis which lead to alterations in insulin secretion are presented. A conclusion is made about tight connections of disturbances in hormonal and calcium homeostasis in the pathogenesis of diabetes and its complications.
Changes in neuronal Ca2+ homeostasis were studied on freshly isolated dorsal root ganglion neurons of adult control mice and mice with streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetes. The cytoplasmic free Ca2+ concentration ([Ca2+]in) was measured using indo-1 based microfluorimetry. The participation of mitochondria in [Ca2+]in homeostasis was determined by investigation of changes which occurred after addition of mitochondrial protonophore (CCCP) to the extracellular solution. In control cells 10 microM CCCP applied before membrane depolarization induced an increase of the amplitude of depolarization-induced [Ca2+]in transients and disappearance of their delayed recovery, indicating the participation of mitochondria in fast uptake of Ca2+ ions from the cytosol during the peak of the transient and subsequent slow release them back during its decay. In diabetic animals the increase of the peak transient amplitude under the action of CCCP became diminished in small (nociceptive) neurons and the delayed elevation of [Ca2+]in disappeared in both large and small neurons. It is concluded that in diabetic conditions substantial changes occur in the Ca2+ homeostatic functions of mitochondria, manifested by decreased Ca2+ uptake in small neurons and depressed Ca2+ release into the cytosol in all types of neurons.
Some insulin-resistant obese postmenopausal (PM) women are characterized by an android body fat distribution type and higher levels of lean body mass (LBM) compared to insulin-sensitive obese PM women. This study investigates the independent contribution of LBM to the detrimental effect of visceral fat (VF) levels on the metabolic profile. One hundred and three PM women (age: 58.0+/-4.9 years) were studied and categorized in four groups on the basis of their VF (higher vs. lower) and lean BMI (LBMI=LBM (kg)/height (m2); higher vs. lower). Measures included: fasting lipids, glucose homeostasis (by euglycemic/hyperinsulinemic clamp technique and 2-h oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT)), C-reactive protein (CRP) levels, fat distribution (by computed tomography (CT) scan), and body composition (by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry). Women in the higher VF/higher LBMI group had lower glucose disposal and higher plasma insulin levels compared to the other groups. They also had higher plasma CRP levels than the women in the lower VF/lower LBMI group. VF was independently associated with insulin levels, measures of glucose disposal, and CRP levels (P
Emerging evidence shows that desaturase 5 (Delta5), the key regulator in the synthesis of highly unsaturated long-chain fatty acids (HUFA), is modulated by factors including adiposity, diet and insulin resistance. We explored the association of these factors in a cross-sectional study within a high-risk Cree population. Anthropometric measures and fasting blood glucose and insulin were analysed. Delta5 was estimated as the 20 : 4n-6:20 : 3n-6 ratio in erythrocyte membranes. The setting of the present study was the Mistissini community in the Cree Territory of Québec, Canada with ninety-eight female and sixty-eight male subjects aged 20-88 years. Obesity (BMI > or = 30 kg/m2) was prevalent across age groups. Delta5 was inversely associated with BMI (Spearman's correlation coefficient (rs) - 0.175; P = 0.03) and positively associated with age (rs 0.593; P