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The 2015 National Canadian Homeless Youth Survey: Mental Health and Addiction Findings.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature291013
Source
Can J Psychiatry. 2017 07; 62(7):493-500
Publication Type
Journal Article
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Date
07-2017
Author
Sean A Kidd
Stephen Gaetz
Bill O'Grady
Author Affiliation
1 Centre for Addiction and Mental Health, Department of Psychiatry, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario.
Source
Can J Psychiatry. 2017 07; 62(7):493-500
Date
07-2017
Language
English
Publication Type
Journal Article
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Keywords
Adolescent
Adult
Canada - epidemiology
Female
Homeless Youth - statistics & numerical data
Humans
Male
Mental Health - statistics & numerical data
Sex Factors
Sexual and Gender Minorities - statistics & numerical data
Stress, Psychological - epidemiology
Substance-Related Disorders - epidemiology
Suicide, Attempted - statistics & numerical data
Young Adult
Abstract
This study was designed to provide a representative description of the mental health of youth accessing homelessness services in Canada. It is the most extensive survey in this area to date and is intended to inform the development of mental health and addiction service and policy for this marginalized population.
This study reports mental health-related data from the 2015 "Leaving Home" national youth homelessness survey, which was administered through 57 agencies serving homeless youth in 42 communities across the country. This self-reported, point-in-time survey assessed a broad range of demographic information, pre-homelessness and homelessness variables, and mental health indicators.
Survey data were obtained from 1103 youth accessing Canadian homelessness services in the Nunavut territory and all Canadian provinces except for Prince Edward Island. Forty-two per cent of participants reported 1 or more suicide attempts, 85.4% fell in a high range of psychological distress, and key indicators of risk included an earlier age of the first episode of homelessness, female gender, and identifying as a sexual and/or gender minority (lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, queer, and 2 spirit [LGBTQ2S]).
This study provides clear and compelling evidence of a need for mental health support for these youth, particularly LGBTQ2S youth and female youth. The mental health concerns observed here, however, must be considered in the light of the tremendous adversity in all social determinants faced by these youth, with population-level interventions best leveraged in prevention and rapid response.
Notes
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PubMed ID
28372467 View in PubMed
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Access to drug and alcohol treatment among a cohort of street-involved youth.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature153685
Source
Drug Alcohol Depend. 2009 Apr 1;101(1-2):1-7
Publication Type
Article
Date
Apr-1-2009
Author
Scott E Hadland
Thomas Kerr
Kathy Li
Julio S Montaner
Evan Wood
Author Affiliation
Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health, 615 North Wolfe Street, Baltimore, MD 21205, USA.
Source
Drug Alcohol Depend. 2009 Apr 1;101(1-2):1-7
Date
Apr-1-2009
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adolescent
Alcoholism - rehabilitation
British Columbia
Cohort Studies
Female
Health Behavior
Health Services Accessibility - statistics & numerical data
Homeless Youth - statistics & numerical data
Humans
Logistic Models
Male
Models, Statistical
Risk factors
Socioeconomic Factors
Substance-Related Disorders - rehabilitation
Treatment Outcome
Waiting Lists
Young Adult
Abstract
A number of options for treatment are available to young drug users, but little is known about the youth who actually attempt to access such services. Here we identify characteristics of a cohort of street-involved youth and highlight commonly encountered barriers.
From September 2005 to July 2007, data were collected from the At-Risk Youth Study (ARYS), a prospective cohort of 529 drug users aged 14-26 living in Vancouver, Canada. Participants who attempted to access any addiction services in the 6 months prior to enrollment were compared in univariate analyses and multiple logistic regression modeling of socio-demographic and drug-related factors.
Factors positively associated with attempting to access services included Aboriginal ethnicity (adjusted odds ratio [AOR]=1.66 [1.05-2.62]), high school education (AOR=1.66 [1.09-2.55]), mental illness (AOR=2.25 [1.50-3.38]), non-injection crack use (AOR=2.93 [1.76-4.89]), and spending >$50 on drugs per day (AOR=2.13 [1.41-3.22]). Among those who experienced difficulty-accessing services, the most commonly identified barrier was excessively long waiting lists. In a subgroup analysis comparing those who tried to access services but were unsuccessful to those who were successful, risk factors positively associated with failure included drug bingeing (odds ratio [OR]=2.86 [1.22-6.76]) and homelessness (OR=3.86 [1.11-13.4]).
In light of accumulating evidence that drug use among street youth is associated with risky health-related behaviors, improving access to treatment and other addiction services should remain an important public health priority.
Notes
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PubMed ID
19081203 View in PubMed
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An innovative medical and dental hygiene clinic for street youth: results of a process evaluation.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature113729
Source
Eval Program Plann. 2013 Oct;40:10-6
Publication Type
Article
Date
Oct-2013
Author
Margo S Rowan
Melanie Mason
Annie Robitaille
Lise Labrecque
Cathy Lambert Tocchi
Author Affiliation
Department of Family Medicine, University of Ottawa, 43 Bruyère Street, Floor 3JB, Ottawa, Ontario, Canada rowankeon@rogers.com
Source
Eval Program Plann. 2013 Oct;40:10-6
Date
Oct-2013
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adolescent
Ambulatory Care Facilities - organization & administration
Canada
Child
Community Health Services - organization & administration
Dental Care - organization & administration
Dental Clinics - organization & administration
Female
Focus Groups
Health Services Accessibility - organization & administration
Homeless Youth
Humans
Male
Program Evaluation
Young Adult
Abstract
Canada has a noteworthy reputation for high quality health care. Nonetheless, street youth are one of our most vulnerable yet underserved populations. Consequently, a medical and dental clinic was created in downtown Ottawa, Ontario to respond to their needs. The purpose of this study is to describe a process evaluation of the clinic during its first year of operation with a focus on program fidelity, dose, reach, and satisfaction. A mixed methods approach was used involving interviews with providers, focus groups with street youth, analysis of Electronic Medical Record (EMR) data, and supplemental information such as document reviews. The evaluation identified areas that were working well along with challenges to program implementation. Areas of concerns and possible solutions were presented to the management team that then helped to plan and make improvements to the clinic. Our evaluation design and working relationship with clinic management promoted the integration of real-time evidence into program improvements.
PubMed ID
23692920 View in PubMed
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[A nurse plunged into the realities of street children].

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature202900
Source
Infirm Que. 1998 Sep-Oct;6(1):55
Publication Type
Article
Author
Mauricie-Bois-Francs
Author Affiliation
Service Info-Santé, CLSC Suzor-Coté, Victoriaville.
Source
Infirm Que. 1998 Sep-Oct;6(1):55
Language
French
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adolescent
Community Health Nursing - methods
Homeless Youth - psychology
Humans
Nurse-Patient Relations
Nursing Staff - psychology
Quebec
PubMed ID
10076258 View in PubMed
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Associations between childhood maltreatment and sex work in a cohort of drug-using youth.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature162948
Source
Soc Sci Med. 2007 Sep;65(6):1214-21
Publication Type
Article
Date
Sep-2007
Author
Jo-Anne Madeleine Stoltz
Kate Shannon
Thomas Kerr
Ruth Zhang
Julio S Montaner
Evan Wood
Author Affiliation
BC Centre for Excellence in HIV/AIDS, Vancouver, BC Canada. jstoltz@cfenet.ubc.ca
Source
Soc Sci Med. 2007 Sep;65(6):1214-21
Date
Sep-2007
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
British Columbia
Child Abuse - statistics & numerical data
Child, Preschool
Cohort Studies
Female
Homeless Youth
Humans
Male
Prospective Studies
Prostitution
Substance-Related Disorders
Abstract
Although research has examined the impacts of childhood maltreatment among various marginalized populations, few studies have explored the relationship between child abuse and subsequent involvement in sex work among drug-using street-involved youth. In the present study, the relationships between the level of childhood maltreatment and involvement in sex work were examined using the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire (CTQ) as part of an extensive interview protocol in an ongoing prospective cohort study of street-involved youth in Vancouver, Canada. Between September 2005 and June 2006, 361 youth were recruited using extensive outreach methods and snowball sampling. The prevalence rates for abuse in the sample were 73% for physical abuse; 32.4% for sexual abuse; 86.8% for emotional abuse; 84.5% for physical neglect; and 93% for emotional neglect. Univariate and logistic regression analyses demonstrated that not only was sexual abuse independently associated with sex work, but emotional abuse was as well. These findings have implications for early intervention efforts aimed at vulnerable, high-risk youth populations as well as intervention strategies for active sex trade workers.
Notes
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PubMed ID
17576029 View in PubMed
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Behavior problems and traumatic events of unaccompanied refugee minors.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature204903
Source
Child Abuse Negl. 1998 Jul;22(7):719-27
Publication Type
Article
Date
Jul-1998
Author
A. Sourander
Author Affiliation
Department of Child Psychiatry, Turku University Hospital, Finland.
Source
Child Abuse Negl. 1998 Jul;22(7):719-27
Date
Jul-1998
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adolescent
Affective Symptoms - diagnosis - psychology
Child
Child Behavior Disorders - diagnosis - psychology
Female
Finland
Group Homes
Homeless Youth - psychology
Humans
Life Change Events
Male
Personality Assessment
Refugees - psychology
Stress Disorders, Post-Traumatic - diagnosis - psychology
Abstract
The present study examined the traumatic events and behavior symptoms of 46 unaccompanied refugee minors waiting for placement in an asylum center in Finland.
Using all the clinical information available information about the refugee children's experiences before and during their flight and after their arrival in Finland was gathered. Children were evaluated with the Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL).
The refugee children had experienced a number of losses, separations, persecution, and threats. About half of the minors were functioning within clinical or borderline range when evaluated with the CBCL. Young age (
PubMed ID
9693849 View in PubMed
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BeLieving in Native Girls: characteristics from a baseline assessment.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature124562
Source
Am Indian Alsk Native Ment Health Res. 2012;19(1):15-36
Publication Type
Article
Date
2012
Author
Deborah Scott
Aleisha Langhorne
Author Affiliation
Sage Associates, Inc., Houston, TX 77007, USA. dsscott@sageways.com
Source
Am Indian Alsk Native Ment Health Res. 2012;19(1):15-36
Date
2012
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adolescent
Adolescent Behavior - ethnology - psychology
Adolescent Psychology - statistics & numerical data
Alaska
Female
HIV Infections - ethnology - prevention & control
Health Behavior - ethnology
Health Surveys
Homeless Youth - ethnology - psychology
Humans
Indians, North American
Juvenile Delinquency - ethnology - prevention & control
Program Evaluation
Questionnaires
Risk factors
Sexual Behavior - ethnology - psychology
Violence - ethnology - psychology
Young Adult
Abstract
BeLieving In Native Girls (BLING) is a juvenile delinquency and HIV intervention at a residential boarding school for American Indian/Alaska Native adolescent girls ages 12-20 years. In 2010, 115 participants completed baseline surveys to identify risk and protective factors. Initial findings are discussed regarding a variety of topics, including demographics and general characteristics, academic engagement, home neighborhood characteristics and safety, experience with and perceptions of gang involvement, problem-solving skills, self-esteem, depression, sexual experiences and risk-taking behaviors, substance abuse, and dating violence.
PubMed ID
22569723 View in PubMed
Less detail

Canadian street youth: correlates of sexual risk-taking activity.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature217641
Source
Pediatr Infect Dis J. 1994 Aug;13(8):690-7
Publication Type
Article
Date
Aug-1994
Author
N E MacDonald
W A Fisher
G A Wells
J A Doherty
W R Bowie
Author Affiliation
Department of Pediatrics, University of Ottawa, Canada.
Source
Pediatr Infect Dis J. 1994 Aug;13(8):690-7
Date
Aug-1994
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adolescent
Adult
Canada - epidemiology
Condoms - utilization
Data Collection
Female
HIV Infections - transmission
Homeless Youth - psychology - statistics & numerical data
Humans
Male
Risk-Taking
Sexual Behavior - statistics & numerical data
Sexual Partners
Sexually Transmitted Diseases - epidemiology - transmission
Socioeconomic Factors
Abstract
The purpose of this study was to develop a national perspective on the sexual activity of street youth in Canada and to determine the correlates of risky sexual behavior according to street youth's link to the street. Five categories of street youth (sex industry workers, heavy drug and/or alcohol users, young offenders, homeless and unemployed) ages 15 to 20 years were recruited in 1988 from 10 Canadian urban centers to participate in a 45-minute structured interview focusing on knowledge and attitudes regarding sexually transmitted diseases (STD)/human immunodeficiency virus, current sexual practices, sexual and STD history, demographic background, alcohol/drug use and relationship with parents and peers. Data from the survey were also compared with findings from more than 15,000 non-street youth adolescents surveyed in the same year with the use of parallel questionnaires. Of 712 street youth surveyed (391 males, mean age 17.3 years; 321 females, mean age 16.8 years), the majority were sexually active (95% males, 93% females) and 22% reported at least one previous STD (16% males, 30% females). The lowest STD rates were in unemployed males (5%) and the highest (68%) in female sex industry workers. STD/human immunodeficiency virus high risk behaviors were frequent with 47% of males and 41% of females having had at least 10 different partners, 73% of males and 75% of females inconsistently using condoms and 22% of males and 24% of females participating in anal intercourse. Even among sex industry workers more than 40% used condoms inconsistently.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)
PubMed ID
7970968 View in PubMed
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The causes of loneliness in homeless youth.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature171962
Source
J Psychol. 2005 Sep;139(5):469-80
Publication Type
Article
Date
Sep-2005
Author
Ami Rokach
Author Affiliation
The Institute for the Study and Treatment of Psychosocial Stress Toronto, Ontario, Canada. arokach@yorku.ca
Source
J Psychol. 2005 Sep;139(5):469-80
Date
Sep-2005
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adolescent
Adult
Age Factors
Causality
Data Collection
Female
Homeless Youth - psychology
Humans
Loneliness
Male
Marital status
Multivariate Analysis
Ontario
Psychometrics
Questionnaires
Reference Values
Self Concept
Sex Factors
Social Perception
Socioeconomic Factors
Abstract
Both homelessness and loneliness are pervasive in North America. In this study, the author compared the causes of the loneliness experienced by young homeless youth (n = 113) with that of counterparts in the general population (n = 211) who answered a 30-item yes-no questionnaire. The results identified 5 causes of loneliness: personal inadequacy, developmental deficits, unfulfilling intimate relationships, relocation or significant separations, and social marginality. The results indicated that the causes of loneliness in young homeless youth are significantly different from those of the general population.
PubMed ID
16285216 View in PubMed
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Cessation of injecting drug use among street-based youth.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature172635
Source
J Urban Health. 2005 Dec;82(4):622-37
Publication Type
Article
Date
Dec-2005
Author
Colin Steensma
Jean-François Boivin
Lucie Blais
Elise Roy
Author Affiliation
Montreal Regional Public Health Department, 1301 Sherbrooke Street East, Montreal, Québec, Canada.
Source
J Urban Health. 2005 Dec;82(4):622-37
Date
Dec-2005
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adolescent
Cohort Studies
Female
Homeless Youth
Humans
Male
Proportional Hazards Models
Prospective Studies
Quebec - epidemiology
Questionnaires
Street Drugs
Substance Abuse, Intravenous - epidemiology
Abstract
Young injecting drug users (IDUs) are at high risk for a number of negative health outcomes such as hepatitis B, hepatitis C, and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. However, very little is known about injecting drug-use patterns among this population, particularly with respect to cessation of injection. We sought to identify the factors associated with cessation of injection in a population of young street-based IDUs. A prospective cohort study design was used to assess long-term (> or = 1 year) cessation of drug injection. Data was collected between January 1995 and September 2000 in Montreal, Qu?bec, Canada. Subjects were originally recruited from various street-based outreach programs in Montreal and, for this study, had to have reported injecting drugs within the prior 6 months at baseline or during follow-up and had to have completed at least two semiannual follow-up questionnaires. Cessation incidence rates stratified by duration of injection and adjusted hazard ratios (AdjHRs) were calculated. A Cox proportional hazards regression model was used to identify risk factors independently associated with cessation of drug injection. Of 502 young IDUs, 305 subjects met the inclusion criteria. Cessation of injection for approximately 1 year or more occurred in 119 (39%) of the young IDUs. The incidence of cessation was 32.6/100 person-years but consistently declined as duration of time spent injecting increased. Independent predictors of cessation of injection were currently injecting on a less than monthly or less than weekly basis (HR = 6.4; 95% confidence interval (CI): 3.0-13.6 and HR = 2.4; 95% CI = 1.1-5.3, respectively); currently injecting two or fewer different types of drug (HR = 2.1; 95% CI = 1.1-4.0); currently employed (HR = 1.7; 95% CI = 1.1-2.7); and having at least one parent born outside of Canada (HR = 1.4; 95% CI = 1.1-1.7). Independent predictors of not ceasing injection were currently attending a needle-exchange program (HR = 0.5; 95% CI = 0.3-0.8); and current homelessness (HR = 0.6; 95% CI = 0.4-1.0). The early sharp decline in cessation of drug injection followed by a consistent decrease in this rate suggest difficulties in breaking the habit later on in the drug injecting career. Intensity of drug use and factors which may help to stabilize the social environment of the young IDU may also influence the ability to stop injecting.
Notes
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PubMed ID
16195471 View in PubMed
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118 records – page 1 of 12.