Paracetamol is one of the most common medicines administered to children and is available in suppositories, mixtures, drops and tablets. Orally administered paracetamol is more rapidly and completely absorbed and is, in general, more acceptable to children. In Iceland, the most common route of paracetamol administration is per rectum. The purpose of the study was to explore parents' knowledge and usage of paracetamol for 3- to 6-year-old children. Parents (n = 103) of children in four playschools in Reykjavík participated in this survey research. Paracetamol was most commonly administered via suppository. Some parents were unaware of oral forms of paracetamol and had been advised by doctors, nurses or pharmacy staff to use suppositories. This study provides basic information needed to design appropriate parental education in pain and fever management.
Tonsillectomy is a common surgical procedure usually associated with moderate to severe pain. Although self-report is the gold standard for pain assessment, researchers have not studied young children at home with self-report measures. The purpose of this study was to describe the patterns of self-reported pain intensity and analgesic administration in 3- to 7-year-old children undergoing tonsillectomy during the operative day in the hospital and the first 2 postoperative days at home in Iceland. As part of a larger study, 68 children undergoing tonsillectomy were taught to use the Wong-Baker FACES Pain Rating Scale. Pain intensity scores and data about administration of analgesics were collected from children, the medical record, and the parents over a 3-day period. Children received primarily acetaminophen or acetaminophen with codeine in the hospital. At home, 99% of doses administered were acetaminophen only. Most doses were administered rectally. Forty percent of children received 24-hour therapeutic doses in the hospital. Only 10% received a 24-hour therapeutic dose at home despite significant pain scores of 4 or 5 persisting through the second postoperative day. Younger children were less likely to receive acetaminophen with codeine. In the hospital, children with pain intensity scores of 4 or 5 received prescribed morphine only 13% of the time. Children experienced clinically significant pain through the second postoperative day and will probably require a change in protocol to provide more aggressive pain management earlier. This study extends to younger children the research evidence that current pain protocols are inadequate.
Research is deficient regarding the strengths of Pacific Island parents of children who are medically fragile. The purpose of this qualitative ethnographic study was to explore the strengths of Pacific Island parents of these children. Audiotaped interviews were analyzed using Text Smart and peer review. The core theme reflecting strength was positive energy. Participants believed that parents needed to have the ability to handle emotional feelings, solve problems, connect with their spirituality, find meaning, take care of themselves, use family support, use community support, use a positive attitude, be resourceful, meet a challenge, interact with nature, and focus on the present. Themes were affirmed by the literature with the exception of interacting with nature, which may be indigenous to the population's cultural orientation.