Given the cutbacks which have been carried out in the Swedish welfare state despite the unchanged official policy of allocation of home help services according to needs, it is essential to evaluate the factors which guide the allocation of home help today. Whereas numerous studies have identified factors which predict entry into the home help system, the present paper concentrates on predictors of the amount of home help amongst those allocated assistance. Data were obtained from the population-based care and services section of the 2002 Swedish National Study of Aging and Care-Kungsholmen (SNAC-K). All home help recipients (> or = 65 years of age) living in an inner city district of Stockholm (Kungsholmen) were analysed with ordinary least squares regressions to identify predictors of the number of hours of home help (n = 943). Need indicators, i.e. dependency in activities of daily living (ADLs) and instrumental ADLs (IADLs), and cognitive impairment (Berger scale) were the strongest predictors of more hours of home help. The addition of sociodemographic (i.e. age, gender and income), environmental (i.e. informal care, housing adaptations and housing accessibility) and structural (i.e. variations in allocation decisions between one care manager and another) factors contributed only marginally to the explained variance. Hours of help entitlement increased slightly with greater age. Co-residing individuals were allocated significantly fewer home help hours than those living alone. Income and regular access to informal care were not significant predictors. The fact that services are provided according to need criteria does not necessarily mean that the provided services are adequate to meet needs. On the macro level, social policy decisions and available economic and manpower resources determine the allotment of municipal home help. However, this study in an urban sample suggests that, within the available resources, the amount of home help allocated is guided mainly by need indicators amongst those given assistance.
Utilization of acute health care services accounts for a substantial proportion of health expenditures in Canada, and is associated with compromised health and autonomy for older persons. Using the Resident Assessment Instrument for Home Care (RAI-HC), this cross-sectional study of 683 elderly home care recipients sought to distinguish clients who were more likely to use acute health care services; i.e., hospital admissions, emergency room visits. Clients with nutritional problems were 2.58 times more likely to have used acute health care services than clients without nutritional problems. Among clients with a poor social support system, those with nutrition problems were 5.95 times as likely to have used acute health care services. Poor self-rated health, and greater functional dependency were also signif- icantly associated with acute health care use. This study provides a profile of elderly home care clients who are at risk of using acute health care services, which may facilitate targeted efforts to prevent unplanned acute health care use.
We used case-control design to compare utilization of health and social services between older decedents and survivors, and to identify the respective impact of age and closeness of death on the utilization of services.
Data were derived from multiple national registers. The sample consisted of 56,001 persons, who died during years 1998-2000 at the age of > or = 70, and their pairs matched on age, gender and municipality of residence, who were alive at least 2 years after their counterpart's death. Data include use of hospitals, long-term care and home care. Decedents' utilization within 2 years before death and survivors' utilization in the same period of time was assessed in three age groups (70-79, 80-89 and > or = 90 years) and by gender.
Decedents used hospital and long-term care more than their surviving counterparts, but the time patterns were different. In hospital care the differences between decedents and survivors rose in the last months of the study period, whereas in long-term care there were clear differences during the whole 2-year period. The differences were smaller in the oldest age group than in younger age groups.
Closeness of death is an important predictor of health and social service use in old age, but its influence varies between age groups. Not only the changing age structure, but also the higher average age at death affects the future need for services.
Since the number of elderly people will rise in the years to come, knowledge about their health trends is important for social planning. The objective of this study was to investigate trends in health development among elderly people over 70 years in Nord-Trøndelag county.
In the Nord-Trøndelag Health Study (HUNT) we have collected health data over three rounds: HUNT1 (1984?–?86), HUNT2 (1995?–?97) and HUNT3 (2006?–?08). Using cross-sectional analyses, we have studied changes in self-reported health, level of functioning and the use of health services. The material includes 12 391 persons (85?% participation) in HUNT1, 11 069 (69.3?% participation) in HUNT2 and 8 194 in HUNT3 (54.7?% participation).
Subjective health and activities of daily living (ADL functions) were assessed as better in HUNT3 than in HUNT2. Self-reported physical activity increased from HUNT1 to HUNT3. The use of home-help services decreased from HUNT2 to HUNT3, while the use of nursing homes and home nursing services remained unchanged. The use of general practitioner services increased in all periods, while the use of outpatient services increased strongly from HUNT1 to HUNT2.
It appears that the elderly inhabitants of Nord-Trøndelag county feel that their health has improved and that they have become more self-reliant and more physically active in the period from 1984 to 2008, but the findings need to be interpreted with some caution due to the decline in the participation rate from HUNT1 to HUNT3.
To explore expressed needs, both formal and informal, of family caregivers of frail elderly. To evaluate roles of physicians.
Questionnaire survey of members of the Montreal Jewish community providing care for frail elderly family members.
Jewish community of Montreal.
Volunteer caregivers who were caring for a family member or friend 60 years or older, who had greatest responsibility for providing physical or emotional support to an elderly person, who saw themselves as caregivers, and who could speak English or French were studied. Of 118 volunteers, 32 were excluded because they withdrew for personal reasons or because they did not meet study criteria.
Demographic variables, functional status of the care receiver, use of home care services, and needs assessment to identify additional services.
An average of 75.4% respondents did not use formal support services. Just under half of caregivers were dissatisfied with the attention they received from the health care system, and more than one third expressed feelings of stress, depression, guilt, and isolation.
Hypotheses for this discontent are presented. Physicians may be uninterested in helping caregivers; even if they were receptive to counseling caregivers, they could be poorly remunerated for the types of counseling sessions that are usual for caregivers; and being a professional caregiver to family caregivers is demanding in itself.
OBJECTIVES: To review the care by general practitioners (GPs), district nurses and assistant nurses of patients receiving home nursing. DESIGN: Retrospective data from questionnaires, records and official statistics. Statistical comparisons. SETTING: Primary health care from October 1995 to October 1996. SUBJECTS: One-third (158) of all patients receiving home nursing in a suburban area were sampled; 73% (116) participated. All patients of comparable age in one practice served as a control group. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Number of and reasons for visits and other contacts. Nature of care. Relation between patient problems and care given. RESULTS: Most patients were seen by the nurses two to five times a month. They met their GPs less often than other patients. More measures were undertaken without direct contact between GP and patient. The most common measures concerned medication and the assessment of symptoms. Patients with cognitive problems seemed to get less active GP care. CONCLUSION: GPs played an active role in the care of patients receiving home nursing even though they seldom met them. Many patients were regularly assessed by the nurses, which might have diminished the need for doctor visits. The care of patients with cognitive problems needs further study.