In Denmark, legislation having the aim to help the elderly to be active as long as possible and prevent or delay institutionalization, is responsible for a number of innovative programs for this segment of the population. It is now the law that no more nursing homes will be constructed in Denmark. Free home nursing and permanent home help and night patrols for home nursing and help is a strategy to delay or prevent institutionalization. In the municipality of Skaevinge, a nursing home was converted to sheltered housing for the same patients and others from the community. Emphasis is on self care and autonomy in decision making. There are no fixed routines or schedules as found in the traditional nursing home. Examples of programs in facilities are given that have health professionals jointly planning and coordinating the delivery of their services that reduce fragmentation and duplication.
Department of Clinical Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Centre for Health Economics and Policy Analysis, Health Sciences Centre, McMaster University, Rm 3H28, 1200 Main Street West, Hamilton, Ont, Canada L8N 3Z5. firstname.lastname@example.org
In 1996, a newly elected government in the Province of Ontario, Canada, introduced a managed competition environment into the home care sector through the establishment of a competitive contracting process for home care services. Through 65 in-depth, semi-structured interviews conducted between November 1999 and January 2001, we trace the implementation of this competitive contracting policy within Ontario's newly established managed community care environment and assess the effects of competitive contracting against two sets of goals: (1). quality of care goals that consider continuity of care of paramount importance in the provision of home care; and (2). the managed competition goal of increased efficiency. In assessing the implementation of this policy against these goals, we highlight the conflicts that can arise in pursuing different policy goals in response to different formulations of the policy problem that underpin them. We map stakeholder experiences with the competitive contracting policy onto relevant contracting and managed competition literatures. When measured against the goals of quality of care and efficiency, the findings presented here offer a mixed review of the experiences to date with the competitive contracting process introduced in Ontario's home care sector and suggest improvements for managing future competitive contracting processes.
The expert examination quality of temporary disability associated with care for a sick child was studied, the contributing factors were identified. A complex of measures is proposed aimed at increasing the efficiency of curative and preventive care for children and reducing labour losses at enterprises.