Arvid Lindau, MD, PhD, consolidated the disparate array of benign and malignant visceral and nervous system lesions into the neoplastic syndrome known as von Hippel-Lindau (VHL) disease. Based on this pioneering work, Dr. Lindau was awarded both a Rockefeller fellowship to work in Dr. Harvey Cushing's laboratory in Boston, Massachusetts, and the Lennmalm Prize. While working in Dr. Cushing's laboratory, Dr. Lindau continued his study of CNS hemangioblastomas. His work with Dr. Cushing led to their lifelong friendship and scientific collaboration. In this paper the authors describe Arvid Lindau's pioneering work in nervous system tumor pathology, his relationship to Dr. Cushing, and his role in advancing neurological surgery and research in Europe.
PURPOSe: To compare the characteristics of nursing research being done in different countries, using data from studies published in nonspecialty, English-language nursing journals. DESIGN: Data for this cross-sectional analysis were retrieved from a consecutive sample of 1,072 studies published in eight leading English-language research journals in 2005 and 2006. METHODS: For each study, data were extracted on the characteristics of the study participants and authors, study focus-specialty area, funding, and methodologic attributes. Studies from 15 countries or regional groupings were compared. FINDINGS: International differences in authors, participants, and study characteristics were typically large and statistically significant. Studies that were focused on nurses were especially prevalent in Europe, Australia, and Canada, whereas patient-centered studies were most common in Asian countries and the US. Qualitative studies were predominant in Norway, Sweden, and the UK. Asian nurse researchers, by contrast, undertook mostly quantitative studies, and were especially likely to conduct intervention research. Significant country differences existed in the omission of demographic (age and sex) information about participants, with omissions most prevalent in the UK and Ireland and least prevalent in Asian countries. Research funding was reported for 62% of all studies, ranging from 13% in Turkey to over 75% in Canada and the US. CONCLUSIONS: Although this study had several limitations, especially with regard to potential biases in the sample of studies from non-English-speaking countries, this analysis of over 1,000 nursing studies indicates many important inter-country differences in the focus, methods, and authorship patterns of nursing research published in leading journals. CLINICAL RELEVANCE: Because research "informs" practice, international differences that exist in the focus and methods of nursing research have implications for nursing practice in the respective countries.
This work is dedicated to the memory of the eminent Russian health resort expert professor Ivan Ivanovich Grigoriev (1915-2002), the founder of the scientific school of meteoprophylaxis who created the organizational and methodological basis for weather forecasting with the medical implications. Ivan Ivanovich Grigoriev has made a great contribution to the research designed to elucidate the influence of the weather factors on the human body. Moreover, he was a prominent organizer of the health resort business in this country paying especially much attention to the construction of spa and health resort facilities and their therapeutic zonation. He did a lot to substantiate the necessity of spa and health resort-based treatment for the country's population and to develop indications and contraindications for such therapy including the identification of the groups of adult subjects and children who are at an especially high risk of suffering from various diseases.