To explore the cancer information preferences of immigrant women by their level of acculturation we conducted interviews with 34 Spanish-speaking English-as-a-second-language (ESL) women. Chi-square and Fisher's exact tests were used to look for differences by acculturation. Four themes were identified: What is prevention? What should I do; sources of my cancer information, strategies I use to better understand, and identifying and closing my health knowledge gaps. Acculturation did not differentiate immigrant women's cancer information sources, preferences, or strategies used to address language barriers. We suggest the effect of acculturation is neither direct nor simple and may reflect other factors including self-efficacy.
Department of Medicine, Division of General Internal Medicine, Institute for Human Genetics and Helen Diller Family Comprehensive Cancer Center, University of California San Francisco, San Francisco, CA 94158, USA.
Among US Latinas and Mexican women, those with higher European ancestry have increased risk of breast cancer. We combined an admixture mapping and genome-wide association mapping approach to search for genomic regions that may explain this observation. Latina women with breast cancer (n= 1497) and Latina controls (n= 1272) were genotyped using Affymetrix and Illumina arrays. We inferred locus-specific genetic ancestry and compared the ancestry between cases and controls. We also performed single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) association analyses in regions of interest. Correction for multiple-hypothesis testing was conducted using permutations (P(corrected)). We identified one region where genetic ancestry was significantly associated with breast cancer risk: 6q25 [odds ratio (OR) per Indigenous American chromosome 0.75, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.65-0.85, P= 1.1 × 10(-5), P(corrected)= 0.02]. A second region on 11p15 showed a trend towards association (OR per Indigenous American chromosome 0.77, 95% CI: 0.68-0.87, P= 4.3 × 10(-5), P(corrected)= 0.08). In both regions, breast cancer risk decreased with higher Indigenous American ancestry in concordance with observations made on global ancestry. The peak of the 6q25 signal includes the estrogen receptor 1 (ESR1) gene and 5' region, a locus previously implicated in breast cancer. Genome-wide association analysis found that a multi-SNP model explained the admixture signal in both regions. Our results confirm that the association between genetic ancestry and breast cancer risk in US Latinas is partly due to genetic differences between populations of European and Indigenous Americans origin. Fine-mapping within the 6q25 and possibly the 11p15 loci will lead to the discovery of the biologically functional variant/s behind this association.
Cites: Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 2004 Feb 1;169(3):386-9214617512
Cites: Genetics. 2000 Jun;155(2):945-5910835412
Cites: Am J Hum Genet. 2004 Nov;75(5):771-8915386213
Cites: Ann Intern Med. 1990 Feb 1;112(3):182-62297194
Cites: Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev. 2005 Dec;14(12):2905-1316365008
Cites: JAMA. 2006 Jun 7;295(21):2492-50216757721
Cites: Am J Hum Genet. 2006 Jul;79(1):1-1216773560
Cites: Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2006 Sep 19;103(38):14068-7316945910
Cites: Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev. 2006 Oct;15(10):1878-8517035394
Cites: Am J Hum Genet. 2007 Apr;80(4):716-2617357077
Cites: Nat Genet. 2007 May;39(5):638-4417401364
Cites: Cancer. 2007 May 1;109(9):1721-817387718
Cites: Nat Genet. 2007 Jul;39(7):870-417529973
Cites: Nature. 2007 Jun 28;447(7148):1087-9317529967
Cites: Am J Epidemiol. 2007 Dec 15;166(12):1409-1917934201
Cites: Am J Epidemiol. 2000 Feb 15;151(4):346-5710695593
Cites: Nat Genet. 2007 Jul;39(7):865-917529974
Cites: Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2002 Mar 19;99(6):3422-711904404
Cites: Cancer Causes Control. 2002 May;13(4):325-3212074502
A person's racial or ethnic self-identification can change over time and across contexts, which is a component of population change not usually considered in studies that use race and ethnicity as variables. To facilitate incorporation of this aspect of population change, we show patterns and directions of individual-level race and Hispanic response change throughout the United States and among all federally recognized race/ethnic groups. We use internal U.S. Census Bureau data from the 2000 and 2010 censuses in which responses have been linked at the individual level (N = 162 million). Approximately 9.8 million people (6.1 %) in our data have a different race and/or Hispanic-origin response in 2010 than they did in 2000. Race response change was especially common among those reported as American Indian, Alaska Native, Native Hawaiian, Other Pacific Islander, in a multiple-race response group, or Hispanic. People reported as non-Hispanic white, black, or Asian in 2000 usually had the same response in 2010 (3 %, 6 %, and 9 % of responses changed, respectively). Hispanic/non-Hispanic ethnicity responses were also usually consistent (13 % and 1 %, respectively, changed). We found a variety of response change patterns, which we detail. In many race/Hispanic response groups, we see population churn in the form of large countervailing flows of response changes that are hidden in cross-sectional data. We find that response changes happen across ages, sexes, regions, and response modes, with interesting variation across racial/ethnic categories. Researchers should address the implications of race and Hispanic-origin response change when designing analyses and interpreting results.
For most of the world, human genome structure at a population level is shaped by interplay between ancient geographic isolation and more recent demographic shifts, factors that are captured by the concepts of biogeographic ancestry and admixture, respectively. The ancestry of non-admixed individuals can often be traced to a specific population in a precise region, but current approaches for studying admixed individuals generally yield coarse information in which genome ancestry proportions are identified according to continent of origin. Here we introduce a new analytic strategy for this problem that allows fine-grained characterization of admixed individuals with respect to both geographic and genomic coordinates. Ancestry segments from different continents, identified with a probabilistic model, are used to construct and study "virtual genomes" of admixed individuals. We apply this approach to a cohort of 492 parent-offspring trios from Mexico City. The relative contributions from the three continental-level ancestral populations-Africa, Europe, and America-vary substantially between individuals, and the distribution of haplotype block length suggests an admixing time of 10-15 generations. The European and Indigenous American virtual genomes of each Mexican individual can be traced to precise regions within each continent, and they reveal a gradient of Amerindian ancestry between indigenous people of southwestern Mexico and Mayans of the Yucatan Peninsula. This contrasts sharply with the African roots of African Americans, which have been characterized by a uniform mixing of multiple West African populations. We also use the virtual European and Indigenous American genomes to search for the signatures of selection in the ancestral populations, and we identify previously known targets of selection in other populations, as well as new candidate loci. The ability to infer precise ancestral components of admixed genomes will facilitate studies of disease-related phenotypes and will allow new insight into the adaptive and demographic history of indigenous people.
Cites: Genetics. 2009 Feb;181(2):711-919087958
Cites: Am J Hum Genet. 2009 Feb;84(2):210-2319200528
Cites: Science. 2009 May 22;324(5930):1035-4419407144
Cites: Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2009 May 26;106(21):8611-619433783
Cites: PLoS Genet. 2009 Jun;5(6):e100051919543370
Cites: PLoS Genet. 2009 Aug;5(8):e100062319714205
Cites: Public Health Rep. 2009 Sep-Oct;124(5):702-1019753948
Canada's growing ethnocultural diversity challenges health professionals to develop culturally sensitive cancer prevention strategies. Little is known about the ethnocultural specificity of cancer risk beliefs. This qualitative pilot study examined cancer risk beliefs, focusing on diet, among adults from Toronto's Somali, Chinese, Russian, and Spanish-speaking communities.
Group interviews (n = 4) were conducted with convenience samples of adults (total n = 45) from four ethnocultural communities (total 45 participants).
The constant comparison method of data analysis identified three common themes: knowledge of cancer risk factors, concern about the food supply, and the roles of spiritual and emotional well-being. Two areas of contrasting belief concerning specific mediators of cancer risk were identified.
Findings support the investigation of cultural-specific health promotion strategies emphasizing both the maintenance of traditional cancer protective eating practices and the adoption of additional healthy eating practices among new Canadians. More research is needed to enhance our understanding of ethnoculturally specific cancer risk beliefs and practices to ensure the cultural relevance of programming.
This exploratory research on psychic consequences of armed conflicts has been carried out in Montreal on 30 latin-americans, eight to 12 year-old refugees. The principal objective was to assert the importance of traumas intensity, accumulation and age of occurrence on the level and type of symptomatology (introversion-extroversion). Using two types of methodologies, clinical scales and in a more exploratory way, projective instruments to study the intra-psychic dynamic underlying the symptomatology observed. The children were classified according to trauma intensity and for this purpose, a trauma scale was defined with latin-american informants. ACHENBACH and DOMINIQUE clinical evaluation scales were applied to the measure of clinical symptomatology. These instruments were analysed as a function of the symptoms intensity and type. Among results, the accumulation and intensity of traumas were found to be in significant correlation with anxio-depressive symptoms, as reported by the children with interiorization symptoms in ACHENBACH. The predominance of interiorization is discussed. The analysis of the TAT, based on objective indicators, brought out a light frequency of violent themes in relations with the clinical symptomatology. This research indicates the relevance of projective instruments to the study of traumatic response.
The purpose of this article is to report on the development and initial use of a pesticide knowledge test (PKT) specifically designed to evaluate agricultural workers' knowledge of the content mandated by the federal Worker Protection Standard (WPS). The PKT is a 20-item, true-false test, used in a sample of 414 adult and adolescent migrant farmworkers in Oregon. The overall mean score, i.e., number correct, was 15.67(78.4%), with both adults and adolescents demonstrating the most difficulty with questions related to the overall health effects of pesticides. The internal consistency was 0.73, when estimated using a method to correct for small sample sizes. Only six items had less than 70% correct answers. Content validity was achieved by basing the items directly on the Worker Protection Standard; face validity was obtained by having the final version of the test reviewed by a bilingual (English-Spanish) educator familiar with the requirements of the WPS. Overall, adult participants scored better than adolescents, and those with previous pesticide training scored better than those without. There were no differences in scores based on gender or whether the test was taken in English or Spanish; however, participants who spoke indigenous languages scored significantly lower than those who did not. These results indicate that the PKT is a valid, reliable measure of worker knowledge of the content of the WPS, although it does not measure the extent to which that knowledge is actually used in the work setting.
Using the short form of the Woodcock Reading Mastery Test-Revised and the reading subtest of the Wide Range Achievement Test-Revised, the reading abilities of 284 male and 128 female drug users from five sites across the United States were evaluated. All subjects were participants in a National Institute on Drug Abuse HIV/AIDS prevention project aimed at intravenous drug users and cocaine smokers. Results revealed differences in reading abilities among ethnic groups with Native and white subjects having significantly higher reading levels than Hispanic and black subjects. Significant site differences were revealed, with mean grade equivalent scores ranging from 2.7 to 10.1 grades. Across all subjects, the average grade equivalent reading level was 5.8 to 7.7, indicating that the subjects read below the level of 81.5% to 93% of the general population. We provide implications for development of educational materials that are accessible for this population.
Identification of modifiable risk factors for the development of eczema is of major public health significance.
This study aimed to determine the effects of obesity in adolescence on the prevalence, severity, and quality of life of patients with eczema.
We used the 2007-2008 National Survey of Children's Health, including a nationally representative sample of 45,897 adolescents aged 10 to 17 years. Caregiver report of eczema, health status, height, weight, number of health conditions, use of health services, and sociodemographics were assessed.
The prevalences of overweight (20.3% vs 15.4%) and obesity (16.8% vs 15.4%) were increased in adolescents with eczema compared with adolescents without eczema (Rao-Scott ?, P
Black race and Hispanic ethnicity were associated with lower rates of sustained virologic response (SVR) to interferon-based treatments for chronic hepatitis C virus infection, whereas Asian race was associated with higher SVR rates compared to white patients. We aimed to describe the association between race/ethnicity and effectiveness of new direct-acting antiviral regimens in the Veterans Affairs health care system nationally. We identified 21,095 hepatitis C virus-infected patients (11,029 [52%] white, 6,171 [29%] black, 1,187 [6%] Hispanic, 348 [2%] Asian/Pacific Islander/American Indian/Alaska Native, and 2,360 [11%] declined/missing race or ethnicity) who initiated antiviral treatment with regimens containing sofosbuvir, simeprevir + sofosbuvir, ledipasvir/sofosbuvir, or paritaprevir/ombitasvir/ritonavir/dasabuvir during the 18-month period from January 1, 2014, to June 30, 2015. Overall SVR rates were 89.8% (95% confidence interval [CI] 89.2-90.4) in white, 89.8% (95% CI 89.0-90.6) in black, 86.0% (95% CI 83.7-88.0) in Hispanic, and 90.7% (95% CI 87.0-93.5) in Asian/Pacific Islander/American Indian/Alaska Native patients. However, after adjustment for baseline characteristics, black (adjusted odds ratio = 0.77, P