The risk of hip fracture rises rapidly with age, and is particularly high in women. This increase in fracture risk reflects both the age-related change in the risk of falling and decrements in the strength of the proximal femur. To better understand the extent to which proximal femoral density, structure and strength change with age as a function of gender, we have carried out a longitudinal analysis of proximal femoral volumetric quantitative computed tomographic (vQCT) images in men and women, analyzing changes in trabecular and cortical bone properties, and using subject-specific finite element modeling (FEM) to estimate changes in bone strength. In the AGES-Reykjavik Study vQCT scans of the hip were performed at a baseline visit in 2002-2006 and at a second visit 5.05±0.25 years later. From these, 223 subjects (111 men, 112 women, aged 68-87 years) were randomly selected. The subjects were evaluated for longitudinal changes in three bone variables assessed in a region similar to the total femur region quantified by DXA: areal bone mineral density (aBMD), trabecular volumetric bone mineral density (tBMD) and the ratio of cortical to total tissue volume (cvol/ivol). They were also evaluated for changes in bone strength using FEM models of the left proximal femur. Models were analyzed under single-limb stance loading (F(Stance)), which approximates normal physiologic loading of the hip, as well as a load approximating a fall onto the posterolateral aspect of the greater trochanter (F(Fall)). We computed five-year absolute and percentage changes in aBMD, tBMD, cvol/ivol, F(Fall) and F(Stance). The Mann-Whitney Test was employed to compare changes in bone variables between genders and the Wilcoxon Signed Rank Test was used to compare changes in bone strength between loading conditions. Multiple (linear) regression was employed to determine the association of changes in F(Fall) and F(Stance) with baseline age and five-year weight loss. Both men and women showed declines in indices of proximal femoral density and structure (aBMD: men -3.9±6.0%, women -6.1±6.2%; tBMD: men -14.8±20.3%, women -23.9±26.8%; cvol/ivol: men -2.6±4.6%, women -4.7±4.8%, gender difference: p
Osteoporosis results in fractures and treatment of osteoporosis has been shown to reduce risk of fracture particularly in those who have had a history of fracture.
A prospective study was conducted using patients admitted to a hip fracture rehabilitation program at a large referral center to evaluate the use of treatments recommended for secondary prevention of osteoporotic fracture between September 1, 2001 and September 30, 2003. The frequency of medication use for the treatment of osteoporosis including estrogen replacement therapy, bisphosponates, calcitonin, calcium and vitamin D therapy was determined on admission, at 6 weeks post discharge and one year following discharge. All patients were discharged to the care of their family physician. All family physicians in the referral region received a copy of the Canadian Consensus recommendations for osteoporosis management 1-3 months prior to the study.
During the study period, 174 patients were enrolled and 121 completed all assessments. Fifty-seven family physicians were identified as caring for 1 or more of the study patients. Only 7 patients had previous BMD, only 5 patients had previously been prescribed a bisphosponate and 14 patients were taking calcium and/or vitamin D. All patients were prescribed 2500 mg calcium, 400 IU vitamin D and 5 mg residronate daily during rehabilitation and at discharge.Following discharge, a significant improvement was seen in all clinical indices of functional mobility, including the functional independence measure (FIM), walking distance, fear of falling score (FFS), and the Berg balance score (BBS). At six weeks a significant (p
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A retrospective chart review was carried out on all consecutive patients over 65 years of age admitted to a tertiary care teaching hospital with a diagnosis of a new hip fracture. A further chart review occurred after discharge from post-surgery rehabilitation. The primary objective was to evaluate the prevalence of osteoporosis diagnosis and treatment in both phases of the study. Secondary objectives included evaluation of the mortality rates, length of stay, prevalence of osteoporosis investigation, and prevalence of osteoporosis diagnosis based on the clinical subspecialty involved. There were 311 patients evaluated in the initial phase, and 226 after rehabilitation. The mortality rate was 5.8% (10% for men, 4% for women; p
BACKGROUND: The highest incidence of osteoporotic fractures is found in northern Europe, where dietary intake of vitamin A (retinol) is unusually high. In animals, the most common adverse effect of toxic doses of retinol is spontaneous fracture. OBJECTIVE: To investigate whether excessive dietary intake of vitamin A is associated with decreased bone mineral density and increased risk for hip fracture. DESIGN: A cross-sectional study and a nested case-control study. SETTING: Two counties in central Sweden. PARTICIPANTS: For the cross-sectional study, 175 women 28 to 74 years of age were randomly selected. For the nested case-control study, 247 women who had a first hip fracture within 2 to 64 months after enrollment and 873 age-matched controls were selected from a mammography study cohort of 66,651 women 40 to 76 years of age. MEASUREMENTS: Retinol intake was estimated from dietary records and a food-frequency questionnaire. Bone mineral density was measured with dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry. Hip fracture was identified by using hospital discharge records and was confirmed by record review. RESULTS: In multivariate analysis, retinol intake was negatively associated with bone mineral density. For every 1-mg increase in daily intake of retinol, risk for hip fracture increased by 68% (95% CI, 18% to 140%; P for trend, 0.006). For intake greater than 1.5 mg/d compared with intake less than 0.5 mg/d, bone mineral density was reduced by 10% at the femoral neck (P = 0.05), 14% at the lumbar spine (P = 0.001), and 6% for the total body (P = 0.009) and risk for hip fracture was doubled (odds ratio, 2.1 [CI, 1.1 to 4.0]). CONCLUSION: High dietary intake of retinol seems to be associated with osteoporosis.
Comment In: Ann Intern Med. 1999 Sep 7;131(5):39210475894
Self-perceived health, smoking, and body mass index measured years before the hip fracture predicted excess post-hip fracture mortality, and even hip fracture patients with the most favorable levels of these risk factors had higher mortality than subjects who did not fracture.
This study aimed to investigate the impact of pre-fracture self-perceived health, smoking, and body mass index (BMI) on excess post-hip fracture mortality using matched peers without hip fracture as reference.
The study was based on the Cohort of Norway (CONOR) consisting of 10 regional health studies (1994-2003) and the NOREPOS hip fracture database (1994-2008). A matched cohort design was used to compare survival between hip fracture patients and subjects without fracture (matched on gender, age at participation in CONOR, and study site). Subjects aged =60 years were included. Hazard ratios were estimated using stratified Cox regression. Age-standardized mortality was also calculated.
Overall, hip fracture patients (N = 3177) had a 2.26-fold (95 % CI 2.13, 2.40) increased mortality compared to matched subjects (N = 20,282). The highest excess mortality was found in hip fracture patients reporting poor health (HR 4.08, 95 % CI 3.17, 5.26) and daily smoking (HR 3.25, 95 % CI 2.89, 3.66) and in patients with BMI
There is a well-known excess mortality subsequent to hip fracture, which is probably restricted to subgroups of hip fracture patients with reduced health status. We studied the association between risk factors and death in 248 hip fracture patients and 248 controls originally enrolled in a population-based case-control study. This cohort was followed for 3 1/2 years with respect to total mortality. A markedly increased mortality was found in hip fracture patients passing a mental status test at a low score [relative risk (RR) = 2.3, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.4-3.7], in hip fracture patients reporting two or more selected chronic diseases (RR = 3.3, 95% CI 1.8-6.1), in hip fracture patients not walking outdoors before the fracture (RR = 3.2, 95% CI 2.0-5.1) and in hip fracture patients in the lower half of handgrip strength distribution (RR = 2.3, 95% CI 1.6-3.4), all compared with the control group. In contrast, hip fracture patients without these risk factors did not have increased mortality compared with the control group. This study suggests that otherwise healthy and fit patients do not have increased mortality subsequent to hip fracture. The excess mortality is restricted to persons with reduced mental status, reduced somatic health and low physical ability. Special attention should be paid to patients with such risk factors in the treatment and rehabilitation period.
We compared retrospectively 31 patients with a periprosthetic fracture to 31 patients in a control group. The Finnish Arthroplasty Register was used to count all periprosthetic fractures treated by revision arthroplasty in Finland and in Tampere University Hospital district during the years 1990-1999. We used the date of the previous operation to find the control group patients operated on at the same time in the same hospital district. No other selection or matching criteria were used. The type of prosthesis, complications, age, BMI, cementation and primary diagnosis were compared. We found that patients who had a fracture as the primary diagnosis ran a 4.4 (95%CI = 1.4-14) times higher risk of periprosthetic fracture than those operated on for other reasons.
Falls and fall-related injuries among older women constitute a major public health problem with huge costs for the society and personal suffering. The aim of this study was to describe and illustrate how a number of circumstances, conceptualized as a scenario, that were related to the individual, the environment, and the ongoing occupation contributed to a fall that led to a hip fracture among women. The sample included 48 women over 55 years old.
Interviews were conducted during home visits and the analysis provided a descriptive picture of circumstances in the shape of a scenario related to the risk of falling. A number of scenarios were developed based on the data and named to provide an understanding of the interplay between the individual, the environment, and the ongoing occupation at the time of the fall.
By applying the concept of a scenario, occupational therapists can increase the awareness of fall risks among older people, and are relevant also for interior designers, architects, and town planners to consider when designing the local environment as well as furniture and other objects.