Dementia, with Alzheimer's disease (AD) being the most common form, is a major hip fracture risk factor, but currently it is not known whether the same factors predict hip fracture among persons with and without dementia/AD. We compared the predictors of hip fracture and mortality after hip fracture in persons with and without AD.
An exposure-matched cohort of all community-dwellers of Finland who received a new clinically verified AD diagnosis in 2005-2011 and had no history of previous hip fracture (N = 67,072) and an age, sex, and region-matched cohort of persons without AD (N = 67,072). Associations between sociodemographic characteristics, comorbidities and medications and risk of hip fracture and mortality after hip fracture were assessed with Cox regression.
As expected, the incidence of hip fractures in 2005-2012 (2.19/100 person-years vs 0.90/100 person-years in the non-AD cohort), as well as mortality after hip fracture (29/100 person-years vs 23/100 person-years in the non-AD cohort) were higher in the AD cohort. This difference was evident regardless of the risk factors. Mental and behavioural disorders (adjusted hazard ratio; HR 95% confidence interval CI: 1.16, 1.09-1.24 and 1.71, 1.52-1.92 in the AD and non-AD-cohorts), antipsychotics (1.12, 1.04-1.20 and 1.56, 1.38-1.76 for AD and non-AD-cohorts) and antidepressants (1.06, 1.00-1.12 and 1.34 1.22-1.47 for AD and non-AD-cohorts) were related to higher, and estrogen/combination hormone therapy (0.87, 0.77-0.9 and 0.79, 0.64-0.98 for AD and non-AD-cohorts) to lower hip fracture risk in both cohorts. Stroke (1.42, 1.26-1.62), diabetes (1.13, 0.99-1.28), active cancer treatment (1.67, 1.22-2.30), proton pump inhibitors (1.14, 1.05-1.25), antiepileptics (1.27, 1.11-1.46) and opioids (1.10, 1.01-1.19) were associated with higher hip fracture risk in the non-AD cohort. Similarly, the associations between mortality risk factors (age, sex, several comorbidities and medications) were stronger in the non-AD cohort.
AD itself appears to be such a significant risk factor for hip fracture, and mortality after hip fracture, that it overrules or diminishes the effect of other risk factors. Thus, it is important to develop and implement preventive interventions that are suitable and effective in this population.
Hip fracture is a common cause of disability and mortality among the elderly. Declining incidence trends have been observed in Sweden. Still, this condition remains a significant public health problem since Sweden has one of the highest incidences worldwide. Yet, no Swedish lifetime risk or survival trends have been presented. By examining how hip fracture incidence, post-fracture survival, as well as lifetime risk have developed between 1995 and 2010 in Sweden, this study aims to establish how the burden hip fractures pose on the elderly changed over time, in order to inform initiatives for improvements of their health.
The entire Swedish population 60 years-old and above was followed between 1987 and 2010 in the National Patient Register and the Cause of Death Register. Annual age-specific hip fracture cumulative incidence was estimated using hospital admissions for hip fractures. Three-month and one-year survival after the first hip fracture were also estimated. Period life table was used to assess lifetime risk of hip fractures occurring from age 60 and above, and the expected mean age of the first hip fracture.
The age-specific hip fracture incidence decreased between 1995 and 2010 in all ages up to 94 years, on average by 1% per year. The lifetime risk remained almost stable, between 9% and 11% for men, and between 18% and 20% for women. The expected mean age of a first hip fracture increased by 2.5 years for men and by 2.2 years for women. No improvements over time were observed for the 3-month survival for men, while for women a 1% decrease per year was observed. The 1-year survival slightly increased over time for men (0.4% per year) while no improvement was observed for women.
The age-specific hip fracture incidence has decreased over time. Yet the lifetime risk of a hip fracture has not decreased because life expectancy in the population has increased in parallel. Overall, survival after hip fracture has not improved.
In Canada in 2008, based on current rates of fracture and mortality, a woman or man at age 50 years will have a projected lifetime risk of fracture of 12.1% and 4.6%, respectively, and 8.9% and 6.7% after incorporating declining rates of hip fracture and increases in longevity.
In 1989, the lifetime risk of hip fractures in Canada was 14.0% (women) and 5.2% (men). Since then, there have been changes in rates of hip fracture and increased longevity. We update these estimates to 2008 adjusted for these trends, and in addition, we estimated the lifetime risk of first hip fracture.
We used national administrative data from fiscal year April 1, 2007 to March 31, 2008 to identify all hip fractures in Canada. We estimated the crude lifetime risk of hip fracture for age 50 years to end of life using life tables. We projected lifetime risk incorporating national trends in hip fracture and increased longevity from Poisson regressions. Finally, we removed the percentage of second hip fractures to estimate the lifetime risk of first hip fracture.
From April 1, 2007 to March 31, 2008, there were 21,687 hip fractures, 15,742 (72.6%) in women and 5,945 (27.4%) in men. For women and men, the crude lifetime risk was 12.1% (95%CI, 12.1, 12.2%) and 4.6% (95%CI, 4.5, 4.7%), respectively. When trends in mortality and hip fractures were both incorporated, the lifetime risk of hip fracture were 8.9% (95%CI, 2.3, 15.4%) and 6.7% (95%CI, 1.2, 12.2%). The lifetime risks for first hip fracture were 7.3% (95%CI, 0.8, 13.9%) and 6.2% (95%CI, 0.7, 11.7%).
The lifetime risk of hip fracture has fallen from 1989 to 2008 for women and men. Adjustments for trends in mortality and rates of hip fracture with removing second fractures produced non-significant differences in estimates.
Little is known about the characteristics of non-participants in epidemiological studies. We evaluated external validity by comparing fracture and mortality rate in participants and non-participants in a longitudinal study on risk factors for fracture.
1,604 randomly selected women, 75 years of age, were invited to attend a study on osteoporosis and fracture. 1,044 women attended the study (participants) and 560 women did not participate (non-participants). Fracture data for all were obtained prospectively from radiographic records. Mortality data were obtained through the population register. Mean follow-up was 13 (11-15) years. Cumulative survival was compared with the log-rank test. Fracture incidence rates per 1,000 person-years were compared with Mann-Whitney U-tests. In addition, fracture comparisons were made with the cumulative incidence function and Gray's test.
454 participants (44%) died during the follow-up, as compared to 372 of the non-participants (66%) (p
Cites: J Bone Miner Res. 2000 Apr;15(4):721-3910780864
Cites: J Bone Joint Surg Br. 2007 Dec;89(12):1627-3118057364
To compare nationwide time trends and mortality in hip and proximal humeral fractures; to explore associations between incidences of falls risk related comorbidities (FRICs) and incidence of fractures.
The study is a retrospective cohort study using nationwide Danish administrative registries from 2000 through 2009. Individuals aged 65 years or older who experienced a hip or a proximal humeral fracture were included. Incidence of hip and of proximal humeral fractures, incidence of FRICs (ischemic heart disease, COPD, dementia, depression, diabetes, heart failure, osteoporosis, Parkinson's disease and stroke) and incidence rate ratios (IRR) for fractures in patients with FRICs, and all-cause mortality up to 10 years after a hip or a proximal humeral fracture were analysed.
A total of 89,150 patients experienced hip fractures and 48,581 proximal humeral fractures. From 2000 through 2009, the incidence of hip fractures per 100,000 individuals declined by 198 (787 to 589, OR = 0.75, CI: 0.72-0.80) among males and by 483 (1758 to 1275, OR = 0.74, CI: 0.72-0.77) among females. Incidences of FRICs decreased. The absolute reduction in fractures was most pronounced for the age group above 75 years (2393 to 1884, OR = 0.81, CI: 0.78-0.83), but the relative reduction was more pronounced in the age group of 65-75 years old (496 to 342, OR = 0.70, CI: 0.66-0.74). IRRs for hip fractures and for proximal humeral fractures were significantly elevated in patients with FRICs.
The results suggest that the overall reduction in fractures can be explained by reduction in falls related comorbidity.
Records were reviewed on 445 patients with fracture of the hip admitted to St. Paul's Hospital, Vancouver, Canada, during the period 1973--1975 inclusive. The epidemiologic factors were analyzed: age, sex, where and when the accident occurred, site of the fracture, the treatment procedure, length of time in hospital, complications, associated conditions, and final placement of the patient. Of the patients, 286 (64 percent) were more than 70 years of age. Among the 260 causal accidents in the patients' home living space or in the hospital, 35 involved toileting. The great majority of the fractured hips (330) were treated by open operation and internal fixation with the Pugh nail; the remainder were treated by conservative methods, various other devices, or arthroplasty. Within 30 days, 121 patients were discharged to their own homes and 68 to a major rehabilitation hospital. A total of 289 patients eventually returned to their own homes. The Pugh nail method of fixation permits early physiotherapy and early walking exercises, beginning within the first few days postoperatively. This largely accounts for the low complication rate, rapid achievement of functional status, and reduced hospital stay. Among the 445 patients there were 43 deaths, including 10 which occurred before operation could be undertaken.
In this open population-based study from Northern Norway, there was no increase in hip fracture incidence in women and men from 1994 to 2008. Age-adjusted hip fracture rates was lower compared to reported rates from the Norwegian capital Oslo, indicating regional differences within the country.
The aim of the present population-based study was to describe age- and sex-specific incidence of hip fractures in a Northern Norwegian city, compare rates with the Norwegian capital Oslo, describe time trends in hip fracture incidence, place of injury, seasonal variation and compare mortality after hip fracture between women and men.
Data on hip fractures from 1994 to 2008 in women and men aged 50 years and above were obtained from the Harstad Injury Registry.
There were altogether 603 hip fractures in Harstad between 1994 and 2008. The annual incidenc rose exponentially from 5.8 to 349.2 per 10,000 in men, and from 8.7 to 582.2 per 10,000 in women from the age group 50-54 to 90+ years. The age-adjusted incidence rates were 101.0 and 37.4 in women and men, respectively, compared to 118.0 in women (p?=?0.005) and 44.0 in men (p?=?0.09) in Oslo. The age-adjusted incidence rates did not increase between 1994-1996 and 2006-2008. The majority of hip fractures occurred indoors and seasonal variation was significant in fractures occurring outdoors only. After adjusting for age at hip fracture, mortality after fracture was higher in men than in women 3, 6 and 12 months (p?=?0.002) after fracture.
There are regional differences in hip fracture incidence that cannot be explained by a north-south gradient in Norway. Preventive strategies must be targeted to indoor areas throughout the year and to outdoor areas in winter.