The question as to whether abdominal obesity has an adverse effect on hip fracture remains unanswered. The purpose of this study was to investigate the associations of waist circumference, hip circumference, waist-hip ratio, and body mass index with incident hip fracture.
The data in this prospective study is based on Cohort of Norway, a population-based cohort established during 1994-2003. Altogether 19,918 women and 23,061 men aged 60-79 years were followed for a median of 8.1 years. Height, weight, waist and hip circumference were measured at baseline using standard procedures. Information on covariates was collected by questionnaires. Hip fractures (n = 1,498 in women, n = 889 in men) were identified from electronic discharge registers from all general hospitals in Norway between 1994 and 2008.
The risk of hip fracture decreased with increasing body mass index, plateauing in obese men. However, higher waist circumference and higher waist-hip ratio were associated with an increased risk of hip fracture after adjustment for body mass index and other potential confounders. Women in the highest tertile of waist circumference had an 86% (95% CI: 51-129%) higher risk of hip fracture compared to the lowest, with a corresponding increased risk in men of 100% (95% CI 53-161%). Lower body mass index combined with abdominal obesity increased the risk of hip fracture considerably, particularly in men.
Abdominal obesity was associated with an increased risk of hip fracture when body mass index was taken into account. In view of the increasing prevalence of obesity and the number of older people suffering osteoporotic fractures in Western societies, our findings have important clinical and public health implications.
To assess the very recent use of alcohol among patients admitted to two Finnish hospitals due to an acute hip fracture.
Very recent use of alcohol was recorded according to the patient's or the relatives' report. Ethanol was measured in blood samples taken at admission. Serum gamma-glutamyltransferase, aspartate aminotransferase and alanine aminotransferase, and vitamin D concentration were measured. Reported use of medication, vitamin D, and/or calcium supplementation was recorded.
Complete data were obtained on 222 of 375 eligible patients; 71% of those enrolled were women. The mean age of women was 80.5 years (SD 10) and of men 73 years (SD 12) (P 1.0 mg/l. Recent alcohol use was more common among patients in the age group of 65-74 years than among older patients (P
The aims of this study were to determine the magnitude of the increase in fracture risk after hospitalization for stroke, and in particular to determine the time course of this risk.
The records of the Swedish register of patients admitted during 1987-1996 were examined to identify all patients who were admitted to the hospital for stroke. Patients were followed for subsequent hospitalizations for hip and all fractures combined. We analyzed 16.3 million hospitalizations, from which 273 288 individuals with stroke were identified. A Poisson model was used to determine the absolute risk of subsequent fractures and the risk compared with that of the general population.
After hospitalization for stroke, there was a >7-fold increase in fracture risk, including that for hip fracture within the first year after hospitalization for stroke. Thereafter, fracture risk declined toward, but did not attain, the baseline risk except in men and women aged >/=80 years.
The high incidence of new fractures within the first year of hospitalization for stroke suggests that such patients should be preferentially targeted for treatment. It is possible that short courses of treatment at the time of stroke would provide important therapeutic dividends.
The aims of this study were to determine the magnitude of the increase in risk of further fracture following hospitalization for vertebral fracture, and in particular to determine the time course of this risk. The records of the Swedish Patient Register were examined from 1987 to 1994 to identify all patients who were admitted to hospital for thoracic or lumbar vertebral fractures. Vertebral fractures were characterized as due to high- or low-energy trauma. Patients were followed for subsequent hospitalizations for hip fracture, and for all fractures combined. A Poisson model was used to determine the absolute risk of subsequent nonvertebral fracture and compared with that of the general population. We analyzed 13.4 million hospital admissions from which 28,869 individuals with vertebral fracture were identified, of which 60% were associated with low-energy trauma. There was a marked increase in subsequent incidence of hip and all fractures within the first year following hospitalization for vertebral fracture in both men and women. Thereafter, fracture incidence declined toward, but did not attain, baseline risk. Increased risks were particularly marked in the young. The increase in fracture risk was more marked following low-energy vertebral fracture than in the case of high-energy trauma. We conclude that the high incidence of new fractures within a year of hospitalization for vertebral fractures, irrespective of the degree of trauma involved, indicates that such patients should be preferentially targeted for treatment. It is speculated that short courses of treatment at the time of first vertebral fracture could provide important therapeutic dividends.
The age- and sex-specific incidence of hip fractures was studied over a period of 30 years. There was a continuous increase in incidence over the years. The trend was most obvious in the oldest age groups and in men.
The risk of fracturing the proximal femur is high for individuals with metabolic bone disease or with low bone mass associated with advanced age. Incidences of 20,538 trochanteric and femoral neck fractures in adult Swedish men and women, from a computerized medical information register for all hospitals in Stockholm County, were analyzed for age- and sex-dependence. The rate of increase in the occurrence of fracture was nearly constant for both sexes, exponentially increasing with age for men over 20 years old and for women over 30 years old. The incidence of trochanteric and femoral neck fracture for men doubled every 7.8 and 7.0 years, respectively. The doubling rate of fracture incidence for premenopausal women, aged 30 to 49 years, did not significantly differ from that for postmenopausal women, aged 50 to 69 years. These findings suggest that age-associated factors common to both sexes provide the main risk for fracturing the proximal femur. Menopause does not pose a major risk.
The authors prospectively studied the association between quantity and type of alcohol intake and risk of hip fracture among 17,868 men and 13,917 women. Analyses were based on pooled data from three population studies conducted in 1964-1992 in Copenhagen, Denmark. During follow-up, 500 first hip fractures were identified in women and 307 in men. A low to moderate weekly alcohol intake (1-27 drinks for men and 1-13 drinks for women) was not associated with hip fracture. Among men, the relative risk of hip fracture gradually increased for those who drank 28 drinks or more per week (relative risk (RR) = 1.75, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.06-2.89 for 28-41 drinks; RR = 5.28, 95% CI 2.60-10.70 for 70 or more drinks) as compared with abstainers. Women who drank 14-27 drinks per week had an age-adjusted relative risk of hip fracture of 1.44 (95% CI 1.03-2.03), but the association weakened after adjustment for confounders (RR = 1.32, 95% CI 0.92-1.87). The risk of hip fracture differed according to the type of alcohol preferred: preferrers of beer had a higher risk of hip fracture (RR = 1.46, 95% CI 1.11-1.91) than preferrers of other types of alcoholic beverages. The corresponding relative risks for preferrers of wine and spirits were 0.77 (95% CI 0.58-1.03) and 0.82 (95% CI 0.58-1.14), respectively. In conclusion, an alcohol intake within the current European drinking limits does not influence the risk of hip fracture, whereas an alcohol intake of more than 27 drinks per week is a major risk factor for men.
OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this study was to investigate whether a previous fracture is a risk factor for fracture later in life and its association with tobacco smoking, menopausal age and the use of oral contraceptives. This is an epidemiological population study based on a questionnaire. A sample of 10000 women from seven birth cohorts between 1900-1940 was obtained at random from the population register. The overall response rate was 74.6%. The responders (n = 7459) represented 53% of the total population. METHODS: The women from all these birth cohorts were questioned regarding a possible history of fractures and the year in which they were sustained. The questionnaire also included questions about menopausal age, use of oral contraceptives, previous gynaecological operations and possible oestrogen medication. The women from the 1900-1920 birth cohorts were questioned in detail about urogenital disorders, while tobacco smoking data were recorded only for the 1930 and 1940 birth cohorts. RESULTS: The relative risk of sustaining a further fracture was significantly related to fracture premenopausally before 40 years of age and later fracture postmenopausally after 60 years of age (1.29; 0.97-1.70) compared to controls (0.78; 0.59-1.03)(P = 0.03). Both an early menopause and tobacco smoking were associated significantly with repeated fractures, while use of oral contraceptives had a protective effect against repeated fractures in the 1940 birth cohort. Logistic multiple regression showed that a fracture was a significant independent risk factor for further fracture in both cohorts 1900-1920 (P
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to quantify the global burden of osteoporotic fracture worldwide. METHODS: The incidence of hip fractures was identified by systematic review and the incidence of osteoporotic fractures was imputed from the incidence of hip fractures in different regions of the world. Excess mortality and disability weights used age- and sex-specific data from Sweden to calculate the Disability Adjusted Life Years (DALYs) lost due to osteoporotic fracture. RESULTS: In the year 2000 there were an estimated 9.0 million osteoporotic fractures of which 1.6 million were at the hip, 1.7 million at the forearm and 1.4 million were clinical vertebral fractures. The greatest number of osteoporotic fractures occurred in Europe (34.8%). The total DALYs lost was 5.8 million of which 51% were accounted for by fractures that occurred in Europe and the Americas. World-wide, osteoporotic fractures accounted for 0.83% of the global burden of non-communicable disease and was 1.75% of the global burden in Europe. In Europe, osteoporotic fractures accounted for more DALYs lost than common cancers with the exception of lung cancer. For chronic musculo-skeletal disorders the DALYs lost in Europe due to osteoporosis (2.0 million) were less than for osteoarthrosis (3.1 million) but greater than for rheumatoid arthritis (1.0 million). CONCLUSION: We conclude that osteoporotic fractures are a significant cause of morbidity and mortality, particularly in the developed countries.