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1H-NMR metabolomic biomarkers of poor outcome after hemorrhagic shock are absent in hibernators.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature267428
Source
PLoS One. 2014;9(9):e107493
Publication Type
Article
Date
2014
Author
Lori K Bogren
Carl J Murphy
Erin L Johnston
Neeraj Sinha
Natalie J Serkova
Kelly L Drew
Source
PLoS One. 2014;9(9):e107493
Date
2014
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Animals
Biological Markers - blood
Hibernation
Lipids - blood
Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy
Male
Metabolome
Rats, Sprague-Dawley
Reperfusion Injury - blood - prevention & control
Sciuridae
Shock, Hemorrhagic - blood - therapy
Treatment Outcome
Abstract
Hemorrhagic shock (HS) following trauma is a leading cause of death among persons under the age of 40. During HS the body undergoes systemic warm ischemia followed by reperfusion during medical intervention. Ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) results in a disruption of cellular metabolic processes that ultimately lead to tissue and organ dysfunction or failure. Resistance to I/R injury is a characteristic of hibernating mammals. The present study sought to identify circulating metabolites in the rat as biomarkers for metabolic alterations associated with poor outcome after HS. Arctic ground squirrels (AGS), a hibernating species that resists I/R injury independent of decreased body temperature (warm I/R), was used as a negative control.
Male Sprague-Dawley rats and AGS were subject to HS by withdrawing blood to a mean arterial pressure (MAP) of 35 mmHg and maintaining the low MAP for 20 min before reperfusing with Ringers. The animals' temperature was maintained at 37 ? 0.5 ?C for the duration of the experiment. Plasma samples were taken immediately before hemorrhage and three hours after reperfusion. Hydrophilic and lipid metabolites from plasma were then analyzed via 1H-NMR from unprocessed plasma and lipid extracts, respectively. Rats, susceptible to I/R injury, had a qualitative shift in their hydrophilic metabolic fingerprint including differential activation of glucose and anaerobic metabolism and had alterations in several metabolites during I/R indicative of metabolic adjustments and organ damage. In contrast, I/R injury resistant AGS, regardless of season or body temperature, maintained a stable metabolic homeostasis revealed by a qualitative 1H-NMR metabolic profile with few changes in quantified metabolites during HS-induced global I/R.
An increase in circulating metabolites indicative of anaerobic metabolism and activation of glycolytic pathways is associated with poor prognosis after HS in rats. These same biomarkers are absent in AGS after HS with warm I/R.
Notes
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PubMed ID
25211248 View in PubMed
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Annual changes in serum sex steroids in male and female black (Ursus americanus) and polar (Ursus maritimus) bears.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature65412
Source
Biol Reprod. 1988 Jun;38(5):1044-50
Publication Type
Article
Date
Jun-1988
Author
S S Palmer
R A Nelson
M A Ramsay
I. Stirling
J M Bahr
Author Affiliation
Department of Animal Sciences, University of Illinois, Urbana 61801.
Source
Biol Reprod. 1988 Jun;38(5):1044-50
Date
Jun-1988
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Animals
Behavior, Animal
Carnivora - physiology
Climate
Cold Climate
Estradiol - blood
Female
Food
Gonadal Steroid Hormones - blood
Hibernation
Male
Periodicity
Pregnancy
Progesterone - blood
Reference Values
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Research Support, U.S. Gov't, Non-P.H.S.
Seasons
Testosterone - blood
Ursidae - blood - physiology
Abstract
The adaptation of black and polar bears to their environments is proportional to the severity of climate and food restriction. Both black and polar bears mate during the spring, despite differences in their recent metabolic state. Reproductive activity in black bears follows 4 mo of torpor, whereas reproduction in polar bears occurs prior to torpor. The goals of this study were to measure the annual changes in serum sex steroids in male and female black and polar bears, and to determine if changes in serum levels of these steroids were associated with metabolic condition or photoperiod. Serum testosterone (T) concentrations were elevated during spring in black and polar bears. Moreover, this increase in serum T in polar bears during spring was correlated with age and testis size. Serum progesterone (P4) concentrations increased in pregnant polar bears in fall coincident with the time of expected implantation. No increases in serum P4 were observed in nonpregnant black and polar bears. Serum estradiol (E2) was elevated in nonpregnant and pregnant polar bears 2 mo prior to the time of expected implantation. We found that serum sex steroids measured in black and polar bears change independent of torpor. Therefore, our results suggest that photoperiod may be a more important regulator of serum steroid levels and reproduction than metabolic condition.
PubMed ID
3408772 View in PubMed
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The arctic ground squirrel brain is resistant to injury from cardiac arrest during euthermia.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature82547
Source
Stroke. 2006 May;37(5):1261-5
Publication Type
Article
Date
May-2006
Author
Dave Kunjan R
Prado Ricardo
Raval Ami P
Drew Kelly L
Perez-Pinzon Miguel A
Author Affiliation
Cerebral Vascular Disease Research Center, Department of Neurology and Neuroscience, Leonard M. Miller School of Medicine, University of Miami, Miami, FL 33101, USA.
Source
Stroke. 2006 May;37(5):1261-5
Date
May-2006
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adaptation, Physiological
Animals
Arctic Regions
Brain Ischemia - etiology - pathology - physiopathology
Cerebrovascular Circulation
Heart Arrest - physiopathology
Hibernation
Neurons - pathology
Rats
Sciuridae
Abstract
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Hetereothermic mammals tolerate hypoxia during euthermy and torpor, and evidence suggests this tolerance may extend beyond hypoxia to cerebral ischemia. During hibernation, CA1 hippocampal neurons endure extreme fluctuations in cerebral blood flow during transitions into and out of torpor as well as reductions in cerebral blood flow during torpor. In vitro studies likewise show evidence of ischemia tolerance in hippocampal slices harvested from euthermic ground squirrels; however, no studies have investigated tolerance in a clinically relevant model of in vivo global cerebral ischemia. The purpose of the present study was to test the hypothesis that the euthermic Arctic ground squirrel (AGS; Spermophillus parryii) is resistant to injury from asphyxial cardiac arrest (CA). METHODS: Estrous-matched female rats were used as a positive control. Female euthermic AGS and rats were subjected to 8-minute CA. At the end of 7 days of reperfusion, AGS and rats were fixed for histopathological assessment. RESULTS: In rats subjected to CA, the number of ischemic neurons was significantly higher (P
PubMed ID
16574920 View in PubMed
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Autonomic control of circulation during the hibernation cycle in ground squirrels.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature297211
Source
Arctic Aeromedical Laboratory. Aerospace Medical Division, Air Force Systems Command. Fort Wainwright, Alaska. Technical documentary report AAL-TDR-62-39.
Publication Type
Report
Date
February 1963
Author
Lyman, C.P.
O'Brien, Regina C.
Source
Arctic Aeromedical Laboratory. Aerospace Medical Division, Air Force Systems Command. Fort Wainwright, Alaska. Technical documentary report AAL-TDR-62-39.
Date
February 1963
Language
English
Publication Type
Report
Keywords
Ground squirrels
Animals
Blood
Circulation
Hibernation
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Bat (Vespertilionidae) hibernation in the northeasternmost part of their geographic range.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature57242
Source
Dokl Biol Sci. 2003 Sep-Oct;392:413-5
Publication Type
Article
Author
A I Anufriev
T N Solomonova
G G Arkhipov
A A Turpanov
N G Solomonov
Author Affiliation
Institute of the Biological Problems of Cryolite Zone, Siberian Division, Russian Academy of Sciences, pr. Lenina 41, Yakutsk, 677891 Russia.
Source
Dokl Biol Sci. 2003 Sep-Oct;392:413-5
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Animals
Body Temperature - physiology
Chiroptera - physiology
Hibernation - physiology
Hypothermia - metabolism
Motor Activity - physiology
Periodicity
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Russia
Skin Temperature - physiology
Temperature
Time Factors
PubMed ID
14650872 View in PubMed
Less detail

Black bears and polar bears--still metabolic marvels.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature65473
Source
Mayo Clin Proc. 1987 Sep;62(9):850-3
Publication Type
Article
Date
Sep-1987

Cell proliferation kinetics in the tongue and intestinal epithelia of hibernating dormice (Glis glis).

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature297165
Source
Arctic Aeromedical Laboratory. Aerospace Medical Division, Air Force Systems Command. Fort Wainwright, Alaska. Technical report AAL-TR-65-16.
Publication Type
Report
Date
April 1966
Author
Adelstein, S.J.
Lyman, C.P.
O'Brien, Regina C.
Source
Arctic Aeromedical Laboratory. Aerospace Medical Division, Air Force Systems Command. Fort Wainwright, Alaska. Technical report AAL-TR-65-16.
Date
April 1966
Language
English
Publication Type
Report
Keywords
Animals
Dormice
Hibernation
Epithelia
Less detail

Changes in the intestinal flora of ground squirrels during periods of hibernation.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature298699
Source
Arctic Aeromedical Laboratory. Aerospace Medical Division, Air Force Systems Command. Fort Wainwright, Alaska. Technical documentary report TDR-62-55. 5 p.
Publication Type
Report
Date
March 1963
I REF ALASKA RC 955 .U9 no.62-55 1963 COPY l :\AL-TDR-62-55 CHANGES IN THE INTESTINAL FLORA OF GROUND SQUIRRELS DURING PERIODS OF HIBERNATION J. P. Schmidt R. E. B ecker TECHNICAL DOCUMENTARY REPORT AAL-TDR-62-55 M a r c h 1963 A RCTIC AEROMEDICAL L AB ORATORY AEROSPACE
  1 document  
Author
Schmidt, J.P.
Becker, R.E.
Source
Arctic Aeromedical Laboratory. Aerospace Medical Division, Air Force Systems Command. Fort Wainwright, Alaska. Technical documentary report TDR-62-55. 5 p.
Date
March 1963
Language
English
Publication Type
Report
File Size
941525
Physical Holding
University of Alaska Anchorage
Keywords
Animals
Arctic ground squirrels
Hibernation
Intestines
Bacteria
Abstract
Counts were made of the coliform bacilli and psychrophilic organisms in the intestinal contents of arctic ground squirrels while the animals were in the active state and again following periods of hibernation. In addition, total viable aerobic cell counts were obtained. Data are presented which indicate that there was a significant increase in the number of psychrophiles and a simultaneous decrease in the number of coliform bacilli during hibernation. No changes were found in the total cell counts which could be associated with hibernation.
Notes
UAA - ALASKA RC955.U9 no.62-55
Documents
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