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[Current trends in the use of pesticides].

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature263739
Source
Gig Sanit. 2014 Jul-Aug;(4):23-6
Publication Type
Article
Author
R Ya Khamitova
G T Mirsaitova
Source
Gig Sanit. 2014 Jul-Aug;(4):23-6
Language
Russian
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Agriculture - methods
Environmental Monitoring - methods
Environmental Pollutants
Environmental Pollution - analysis - prevention & control
Glycine - analogs & derivatives - analysis
Herbicides - analysis
Humans
Pesticides - analysis - classification
Tatarstan
Abstract
The aim of this study--to identify the main trends in the use of pesticides at the present stage. Since 2004, in the Republic of Tatarstan, there is observed an increase of the discharge of pesticides, the list of drugs and cultivated area. The introduction of minimum tillage on technology was shown to have led to an increase in the share of herbicide to 86.2% and significantly changed their range. Glyphosate became the main active ingredient.
PubMed ID
25842489 View in PubMed
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Direct and indirect effects of climate change on herbicide leaching--a regional scale assessment in Sweden.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature264576
Source
Sci Total Environ. 2015 May 1;514:239-49
Publication Type
Article
Date
May-1-2015
Author
Karin Steffens
Nicholas Jarvis
Elisabet Lewan
Bodil Lindström
Jenny Kreuger
Erik Kjellström
Julien Moeys
Source
Sci Total Environ. 2015 May 1;514:239-49
Date
May-1-2015
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Agriculture
Climate change
Environmental monitoring
Groundwater - chemistry
Herbicides - analysis
Models, Chemical
Sweden
Water Pollutants, Chemical - analysis
Abstract
Climate change is not only likely to improve conditions for crop production in Sweden, but also to increase weed pressure and the need for herbicides. This study aimed at assessing and contrasting the direct and indirect effects of climate change on herbicide leaching to groundwater in a major crop production region in south-west Sweden with the help of the regional pesticide fate and transport model MACRO-SE. We simulated 37 out of the 41 herbicides that are currently approved for use in Sweden on eight major crop types for the 24 most common soil types in the region. The results were aggregated accounting for the fractional coverage of the crop and the area sprayed with a particular herbicide. For simulations of the future, we used projections of five different climate models as model driving data and assessed three different future scenarios: (A) only changes in climate, (B) changes in climate and land-use (altered crop distribution), and (C) changes in climate, land-use, and an increase in herbicide use. The model successfully distinguished between leachable and non-leachable compounds (88% correctly classified) in a qualitative comparison against regional-scale monitoring data. Leaching was dominated by only a few herbicides and crops under current climate and agronomic conditions. The model simulations suggest that the direct effects of an increase in temperature, which enhances degradation, and precipitation which promotes leaching, cancel each other at a regional scale, resulting in a slight decrease in leachate concentrations in a future climate. However, the area at risk of groundwater contamination doubled when indirect effects of changes in land-use and herbicide use, were considered. We therefore concluded that it is important to consider the indirect effects of climate change alongside the direct effects and that effective mitigation strategies and strict regulation are required to secure future (drinking) water resources.
PubMed ID
25666284 View in PubMed
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Indirect sources of herbicide exposure for families on Ontario farms.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature173858
Source
J Expo Sci Environ Epidemiol. 2006 Jan;16(1):98-104
Publication Type
Article
Date
Jan-2006
Author
Tye E Arbuckle
Dana Bruce
Len Ritter
J Christopher Hall
Author Affiliation
Biostatistics and Epidemiology Division, Environmental Health Science Bureau, Health Canada, Ottawa, ON, Canada. tye_arbuckle@hc-sc.gc.ca
Source
J Expo Sci Environ Epidemiol. 2006 Jan;16(1):98-104
Date
Jan-2006
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
2,4-Dichlorophenoxyacetic Acid - analysis - urine
Adult
Agriculture
Child
Environmental Exposure
Environmental monitoring
Equipment Contamination
Family Health
Female
Herbicides - analysis - urine
Humans
Hygiene
Male
Ontario
Pesticide Residues - analysis - urine
Water Supply - analysis
Abstract
Although direct contact during mixing/loading, application or repair and clean-up is the major pathway by which individuals living on farms are exposed to herbicides, indirect sources such as contact with contaminated surfaces may also contribute. As part of a biomonitoring study to measure the nature and extent of exposure of farm families to herbicides, we attempted to identify potential indirect sources of exposure in a subset of 32 Ontario farms. Herbicide residues in drinking water samples as well as surface swipes of common surfaces within the home were measured and compared with urinary concentrations of the applicator, spouse and child. Residues of 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D) were measured on all surfaces that were tested, with the highest levels found on the washing machine knob and wash-up faucet within the home. Drinking water was not a significant source of exposure to 2,4-D for farm families. Urine samples of family members were weakly correlated with residues of 2,4-D measured on the exterior door knob. The applicators in our study, the most highly exposed subpopulation in our study group, had exposures that were less than one-third of the exposure on a daily, lifetime basis deemed to be safe by regulatory agencies in Canada and the United States. As 2,4-D residues were detected on surfaces in farm homes where 2,4-D was not reportedly used at that time, this suggests that 2,4-D applied during a previous season (or on a neighbouring farm) may be tracked into the home and persist on hard surfaces and be a chronic, albeit low level, source of exposure for family members. Pesticide applicators and their families should be counselled on hygienic practices (e.g. removing footware and washing soiled hands prior to entering the home) to reduce indirect sources of exposure. Journal of Exposure Science and Environmental Epidemiology (2006) 16, 98-104. doi:10.1038/sj.jea.7500441; published online 13 July 2005.
PubMed ID
16015277 View in PubMed
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Investigation of the herbicide glyphosate and the plant growth regulators chlormequat and mepiquat in cereals produced in Denmark.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature193175
Source
Food Addit Contam. 2001 Oct;18(10):898-905
Publication Type
Article
Date
Oct-2001
Author
K. Granby
M. Vahl
Author Affiliation
Institute of Food Research and Nutrition, Danish Veterinary and Food Administration, Søborg. kgr@fdir.dk
Source
Food Addit Contam. 2001 Oct;18(10):898-905
Date
Oct-2001
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Cereals - chemistry
Chlormequat - analysis
Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid - methods
Denmark
Glycine - analogs & derivatives - analysis
Herbicides - analysis
Humans
Mass Spectrometry - methods
Maximum Allowable Concentration
Piperidines - analysis
Plant Growth Regulators - analysis
Reproducibility of Results
Abstract
An LC-MS/MS method for analysing glyphosate and aminomethylphosphonic acid (AMPA) in cereals was developed. The method is based on extraction with water and detection of the ions from the fragmentation m/z 170-->88 (glyphosate) and m/z 112-->30 (AMPA), using electrospray interface in the positive mode. Investigation from the harvests of 1998 and 1999 showed residues of glyphosate and/or its degradation product AMPA in more than half of the cereal samples produced in Denmark. The average concentration of glyphosate in 46 samples from the 1999 harvest was 0.11 mg/kg compared with 0.08 mg/kg for the 1998 harvest (n = 49). Thus, the figures were well below the maximum residue limit (MRL) and no violations were observed. The plant growth regulators chlormequat and/or mepiquat were investigated in cereals from the Danish harvest of 1999 where 83% of the samples contained chlormequat (n = 46) compared with 87% of the samples from the 1997 harvest (n = 52). The average concentration of chlormequat in 1999 was 0.32 mg/kg compared with 0.23 mg/kg in 1997. At 2.9 mg/kg, one sample of wheat bran was exceeding the MRL of 2 mg/kg for wheat. The intakes of the pesticides through the diet of cereals were estimated to comprise 0.04% of the acceptable daily intake (ADI) for glyphosate and 1% of the ADI for chlormequat for an adult Dane.
PubMed ID
11569770 View in PubMed
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Linking Herbicide Dissipation to Soil Ecological Risk along Transmission Rights-of-Way in the Yukon Territory, Canada.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature300162
Source
J Environ Qual. 2018 11; 47(6):1356-1364
Publication Type
Journal Article
Date
11-2018
Author
Amy Jimmo
Krystal M Isbister
Eric G Lamb
Steven D Siciliano
Katherine J Stewart
Source
J Environ Qual. 2018 11; 47(6):1356-1364
Date
11-2018
Language
English
Publication Type
Journal Article
Keywords
Environmental monitoring
Herbicides - analysis
Power Plants
Soil Pollutants - analysis
Weed Control - methods
Yukon Territory
Abstract
In the Yukon Territory, transmission rights-of-way (ROWs) are managed using brushing and mowing techniques alone. When cut, target species such as Michx. and spp. grow rapidly shortening maintenance cycles. Long-term vegetation control may be improved by integrating herbicide application. However, prior to implementation, the dissipation and toxicity of herbicides in northern latitudes needed to be assessed. The dissipation of Garlon XRT (triclopyr) and Arsenal Powerline (imazapyr) in soils was assessed at five ROW locations representative of the main ecoregion types where ROWs occur within the Yukon Territory. Soils from four sites were collected at 1, 30, and 365 d after treatment to determine persistence of herbicides for each of three application methods (backpack spraying, cut stump, and point injection). Increased sampling intervals were added to better determine the dissipation rate of each herbicide in Yukon Territory soils. Soil dissipation data were linked to a series of standardized toxicity tests, including three soil invertebrates (, , and ). Additionally, the dissipation of both herbicides from the target species L. was assessed at one site. Herbicide residues persisted in soils for longer than 365 d after treatment and longer than 30 d after treatment in . However, concentrations were below the concentration that would affect 25% of the invertebrate species tested. Weight of evidence and toxic exposure ratios were used to characterize the risks associated with herbicide application in northern latitudes and provided both qualitative and quantitative means to communicate the results to the public.
PubMed ID
30512064 View in PubMed
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