According to the 'good genes' hypothesis, females choose males based on traits that indicate the male's genetic quality in terms of disease resistance. The 'immunocompetence handicap hypothesis' proposed that secondary sexual traits serve as indicators of male genetic quality, because they indicate that males can contend with the immunosuppressive effects of testosterone. Masculinity is commonly assumed to serve as such a secondary sexual trait. Yet, women do not consistently prefer masculine looking men, nor is masculinity consistently related to health across studies. Here, we show that adiposity, but not masculinity, significantly mediates the relationship between a direct measure of immune response (hepatitis B antibody response) and attractiveness for both body and facial measurements. In addition, we show that circulating testosterone is more closely associated with adiposity than masculinity. These findings indicate that adiposity, compared with masculinity, serves as a more important cue to immunocompetence in female mate choice.
Cites: JAMA. 1999 Oct 27;282(16):1523-910546691
Cites: Nature. 1998 Aug 27;394(6696):884-79732869
Cites: Ann Intern Med. 1993 Oct 1;119(7 Pt 2):655-608363192
Cites: Proc Biol Sci. 1998 May 22;265(1399):927-339633114
Virus hepatitis B and C are widespread human diseases of viral etiology, characterized by a common mechanism of the transmission of their etiological agents. The study of the routes of transmission of these infections in hospitals and the epidemiological characterization of the occurrence of the markers of hepatitis B and C among the medical personnel working in therapeutic and prophylactic institutions (TPI) are highly important problems. The data obtained in our investigations make it possible to determine the irregular character of the detection rate of the markers of virus infection among the medical personnel in different departments of a large hospital and to give explanation for such irregularity. A high morbidity rate in virus hepatitis B and C among the medical personnel continues to be one of serious problem facing TPI, and the improvement of the methods of their prevention is still a highly important task of hospital epidemiology.
Few data are available concerning the persistence of anti-HBs and the effect of booster doses given several years post-vaccination against hepatitis B during preadolescence. The objective of this open-labelled clinical trial was to evaluate the persistence of antibodies after vaccination with three paediatric doses of Engerix-B at the age of 8-10 years and the effect of a booster dose given 5 (Group Y5) or 10 (Group Y10) years later. Anti-HBs were measured before and one month post-primary vaccination, then 5 and 10 years later, before the booster dose, as well as one month and 1 year post-booster. The anamnestic response was defined as a >or=fourfold increase of anti-HBs post-booster (>or=10 IU/L) when compared to pre-booster. Ten years post-primary vaccination, 559 of the 652 initially randomized subjects (86%) were eligible for analysis. Group Y5, 5 years post-booster results: 99% of subjects had detectable levels of antibodies and 96% a titer >or=10 IU/L. The anti-HBs GMTs decreased from 114,489 IU/L one month post-booster to 3354 IU/L 5 years later. Group Y10 results: 10 years post-primary vaccination 96% of subjects had a detectable level of anti-HBs and 85% were above the threshold of 10 IU/L. The GMTs one month post-booster were 31,030 IU/L. The challenge with a booster demonstrated an anamnestic response in 99% of subjects in group Y5 and 100% of subjects in group Y10. All subjects were anti-HBc negative. The booster doses were well tolerated. The excellent anamnestic response observed after the booster dose demonstrates the persistence of immunity in virtually all young adults vaccinated at the age of 8-10 with three paediatric doses of Engerix-B.
The duration of protection in children and adults resulting from hepatitis B vaccination is unknown. In 1981, we immunized a cohort of 1578 Alaska Native adults and children from 15 Alaska communities aged =6 months using 3 doses of plasma-derived hepatitis B vaccine.
Persons were tested for antibody to hepatitis B surface antigen (anti-HBs) levels 30 years after receiving the primary series. Those with levels
Hepatitis B virus (HBV) has eight genotypes which have distinct geographical distributions. Studies comparing differences in the clinical outcomes of infections caused by strains with genotype-related variations in the HBV genome have largely compared genotypes B and C and genotypes A and D but not all four genotypes. The present study included 196 HBV-infected patients attending an infectious diseases outpatient clinic in Sweden. The age and geographic origin, liver function, HBeAg and anti-HBe status, and the presence or absence of HBV DNA were analyzed for each patient. HBV DNA was detected in 144 patients, and the HBV genotype and the core promoter and precore sequences were determined for the isolates from 101 of these patients. Among the patients who might be considered most likely to be nonviremic, namely, anti-HBe-positive HBV carriers with normal alanine aminotransferase (ALT) levels, 65% had detectable HBV DNA and were thus viremic. Among the viremic patients, HBeAg-positive patients were more likely to have elevated ALT levels than anti-HBe-positive patients. HBV genotypes A to F were represented in the study, and their distributions coincided accurately with the origin of the patient. A significantly higher number of genotype D-infected patients were anti-HBe positive and had elevated ALT levels (42% of genotype D-infected patients but 0% of patients infected with genotypes B and C). Genotype D strains with mutations in the core promoter and precore regions were significantly correlated with elevated ALT levels in the patients. The differences were not age related. Therefore, in this large-scale cross-sectional study, genotype D appears to be associated with more active disease.
To evaluate co-administration of GlaxoSmithKline Biologicals' human papillomavirus-16/18 AS04-adjuvanted vaccine (HPV) and hepatitis B vaccine (HepB).
This was a randomized, controlled, open, multicenter study. Healthy girls, aged 9-15 years, were randomized to receive HPV (n=247), HepB (n=247) or HPV co-administered with HepB (HPV+HepB; n=247) at Months 0, 1 and 6. Antibodies against hepatitis B surface antigen (HBs), HPV-16 and HPV-18 were measured, and reactogenicity and safety monitored. Co-primary objectives were to demonstrate non-inferiority of hepatitis B and HPV-16/18 immune responses at Month 7 for co-administered vaccines, compared with vaccines administered alone, in the according-to-protocol cohort.
The pre-defined criteria for non-inferiority were met for all co-primary immunogenicity endpoints at Month 7. Anti-HBs seroprotection rates =10mIU/mL were achieved by 97.9% and 100% of girls, respectively, following co-administration or HepB alone. Anti-HBs geometric mean titers (GMTs) (95% confidence interval) were 1280.9 (973.3-1685.7) and 3107.7 (2473.1-3905.1) milli-international units/mL, respectively. Anti-HPV-16 and -18 seroconversion rates were achieved by =99% of girls following co-administration or HPV alone. Anti-HPV-16 GMTs were 19819.8 (16856.9-23303.6) and 21712.6 (19460.2-24225.6) ELISA units (ELU)/mL, respectively. Anti-HPV-18 GMTs were 8835.1 (7636.3-10222.1) and 8838.6 (7948.5-9828.4) ELU/mL, respectively. Co-administration was generally well tolerated.
The study results support the co-administration of HPV-16/18 AS04-adjuvanted vaccine with hepatitis B vaccine in adolescent girls aged 9-15 years.
ClinicalTrials.gov registration number NCT00652938.
A highly sensitive polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was used to analyse serum samples from HBsAg-positive patients in Sweden. Forty-two chronic carriers were tested, five of whom were of Swedish origin. Of the total, there were 13 HBeAg-positive and 27 anti-HBe-positive patients, while 1 patient was negative for both HBeAg and anti-HBe and one was positive for both markers. Nine of the 13 HBeAg-positive carriers and only 7 of the 27 anti-HBe-positive carriers had elevated alanine transaminase (ALT) levels (P = 0.01). Two PCR tests of marginally different sensitivity were used on all patient samples. All 13 HBeAg-positive patients and the patients with and lacking both HBeAg and anti-HBe markers, respectively, were positive in both PCR tests. One HBeAg-positive patient was shown to shed hepatitis B virus (HBV) DNA in both saliva and urine. Twelve of the 27 anti-HBe-positive carriers, 6 of whom had elevated ALT levels, were PCR positive. The remaining 15 had no evidence of HBV DNA and all but 1 had normal ALT levels. A positive PCR result was more common in those anti-HBe-positive patients with elevated ALT levels (P
The aims of this study were to determine the current prevalence of viral hepatitis and HIV among drug users, and to compare this prevalence with previous findings in the same geographical region. Cross-sectional surveys of drug users attending treatment centers on the island of Funen with approximately 500,000 inhabitants were administered in 1996 and 2007. The 2007 prevalence estimates were: anti-HBc 50.2%, HBsAg 0.9%, anti-HCV 66.8%, HCV-RNA 40%, and anti-HIV 1.1%. The corresponding 1996 prevalence values were: anti-HBc 70% (P?
Continuing hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection is normally associated with the presence of hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) in the serum. In spite of sensitive screening assays for HBsAg, rare cases of post-transfusion HBV infection are still observed. Antibody to hepatitis B core antigen (anti-HBc) often indicates remote HBV infection but DNA hybridisation and more sensitive polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assays have demonstrated that some HBsAg negative individuals, positive for anti-HBc, have continuing HBV replication. To determine the incidence of ongoing HBV infection in a Canadian HBsAg negative, anti-HBc positive population we studied three groups with this combination of HBV markers: Group A, 36 patients referred for investigation of raised serum aminotransferases; Group B, 21 Canadian Red Cross blood donors; Group C, seven vaccinees in an Ottawa Health Care Student hepatitis B vaccination programme. The PCR was carried out using a nested PCR reaction with primers specific for the pre-core region of HBV. Seven of 36 (19%) patients in Group A had detectable HBV DNA whereas none of Group B or C were positive. This data indicates that in some HBsAg negative patients with ongoing hepatic inflammation, continuing HBV replication may persist. This was not observed in any healthy blood donors or health care students investigated. Larger studies are required, but this data would suggest that, in Canada, the addition of anti-HBc testing for all blood donors for detection of low level HBV replication would not be indicated.
Identification of clinico-epidemiologic features of pareneteral hepatites (HB and HC) and herpesvirus infections (cytomegalovirus, CMVand herpes simplexvirus, HSV) duringpregnancy.
Two hundred pregnant women as well as 150 women--blood donors who comprised a control group were tested in Cheboksary (Chuvash Republic). There were no persons vaccinated against HB in both groups. Diagnostics of the HB and HC as well as CMV and HSV infections was performed by ELISA--HBsAg, anti-HBs, anti-HBc IgM and IgG, anti-HCV as well as IgM and IgG to CMV and HSV were determined; PCR was used to detect HBV DNA and HCV RNA.
Moderate prevalence of HB and HC markers in pregnant (31% and 3% respectively) and donor women (34% and 2% respectively) as well as widespread prevalence of herpesvirus infections' markers (from 71% to 94.5%) was established. The studied women had no clinical manifestations of HB or HC as well as CMV or HSV infections at the time of the study. The study revealed the following: association between complications of pregnancy and detected markers of HB, HC, and herpesvirus infections according to trimester; detection rate of HBV and HCV markers in combination with CMV and HSV markers in pregnant women; association of pregnancy complications with presence of HB and HC markers with combination of herpesvirus infection markers.
It was shown that pregnant women with presence of markers of studied infections present a risk group for development of miscarriage threat, inflammatory processes in placenta and amniotic membranes, and untrauterine fetal growth retardation.