An open-label randomized study was undertaken to compare a 2-dose regimen (Months 0 and 6) of hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) vaccine formulated with a novel adjuvant (HBsAg/AS04) with a standard 3-dose regimen (Months 0, 1 and 6) of licensed recombinant HBsAg vaccine in terms of immunogenicity and reactogenicity when administered to healthy subjects aged between 15 and 40 y. At 1 and 6 months after the full vaccination course there was a 100% seroprotection rate (anti-HBs > or = 10 mIU/ml) with the HBsAg/AS04 vaccine, compared with a 99% response rate with the licensed vaccine. The corresponding geometric mean titres were significantly higher for the novel vaccine compared to the standard vaccine: 15,468 and 2,745 mIU/ml at Months 7 and 12 vs. 6,274 and 1,883 mIU/ml, respectively. There was a higher prevalence of local symptoms with the adjuvant vaccine (90% of doses) than with the standard vaccine (48% of doses). However, these symptoms (pain, swelling and redness) were predominantly of mild-to-moderate intensity and resolved rapidly without treatment. A 2-dose regimen of the new HBsAg/AS04 adjuvant vaccine therefore compared favourably to the standard regimen in healthy young adults. It is anticipated that the simplified vaccination schedule may improve compliance and reduce costs.
150 community dentists and 200 private general dental practitioners in southern Sweden were asked about the frequency of glove use in dental practice and related issues. This was a 3-year follow-up study. 76% of the community GDPs and 29% of the private GDPs used gloves regularly in all patient treatment. The group consisted mostly of female and younger dentists. Dentists never using gloves at all were older, male private practitioners. Difficulties to adjust using gloves and mostly non-risk-clientele were the two main reasons for dentists not to use gloves regularly. Skin complaints related to glove use seems to have increased from 1988 to 1991. Cross-infection-risk by HIV from patient was assessed as low although the main reason for most dentist to use gloves regularly was the contemporary debate about AIDS and HIV in media.