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Cost without benefit? The introduction of hepatitis B vaccine in Canada.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature241902
Source
Can Med Assoc J. 1983 May 15;128(10):1158-60
Publication Type
Article
Date
May-15-1983
Author
R A Coates
J G Rankin
Source
Can Med Assoc J. 1983 May 15;128(10):1158-60
Date
May-15-1983
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adolescent
Adult
Aged
Canada
Child
Child, Preschool
Cost-Benefit Analysis
Female
Hepatitis B - prevention & control
Hepatitis B virus - immunology
Humans
Infant
Male
Middle Aged
Risk
Viral Vaccines - supply & distribution - therapeutic use
Notes
Cites: Am J Public Health. 1979 Jun;69(6):581-4443498
Cites: Am J Epidemiol. 1979 Sep;110(3):227-36224696
Cites: J Med Virol. 1979;4(4):327-40541683
Cites: Gastroenterology. 1980 Dec;79(6):1159-646777232
Cites: Am J Med. 1981 Feb;70(2):439-447468625
Cites: J Clin Pathol. 1981 Sep;34(9):1017-97276216
Cites: Am J Epidemiol. 1982 Jan;115(1):26-397055128
Cites: Arch Intern Med. 1982 Mar;142(3):481-46802093
Cites: Ann Intern Med. 1982 Jun;96(6 Pt 1):777-97091942
Cites: N Engl J Med. 1982 Sep 9;307(11):644-526810170
Cites: Ann Intern Med. 1982 Sep;97(3):362-66810736
Cites: N Engl J Med. 1973 Nov 29;289(22):1162-64754964
Cites: JAMA. 1974 Feb 25;227(8):901-64405860
Cites: Am J Epidemiol. 1975 Jan;101(1):59-641119482
Cites: Am J Epidemiol. 1975 Sep;102(3):241-501174290
Cites: Ann Intern Med. 1975 Oct;83(4):489-951166979
Cites: JAMA. 1975 Dec 15;234(11):1135-8810605
Cites: Can Med Assoc J. 1975 Nov 22;113(10):945-81104126
Cites: Dev Biol Stand. 1975;30:257-691204962
Cites: J Infect Dis. 1976 Jun;133(6):705-6932496
Cites: Transfusion. 1976 May-Jun;16(3):237-41936273
Cites: Am J Med Sci. 1975 Sep-Oct;270(2):287-911235469
Cites: Transfusion. 1977 Sep-Oct;17(5):490-4910267
Cites: JAMA. 1978 Jan 16;239(3):210-12579391
Cites: J Infect Dis. 1978 Apr;137(4):505-6649994
Cites: Pediatrics. 1978 May;61(5):711-5662509
Cites: Acta Hepatogastroenterol (Stuttg). 1978 Dec;25(6):423-30214987
Cites: Am J Gastroenterol. 1979 Feb;71(2):164-7433898
Cites: Gastroenterology. 1979 Jun;76(6):1319-25437428
PubMed ID
6404544 View in PubMed
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Duration of hepatitis B immunity in low risk children receiving hepatitis B vaccinations from birth.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature5641
Source
Pediatr Infect Dis J. 2004 Jul;23(7):650-5
Publication Type
Article
Date
Jul-2004
Author
Kenneth M Petersen
Lisa R Bulkow
Brian J McMahon
Carolyn Zanis
Marilyn Getty
Helen Peters
Alan J Parkinson
Author Affiliation
Arctic Investigations Program, National Center for Infectious Diseases, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Alaska Native Tribal Health Consortium, Anchorage, AK 99508, USA.
Source
Pediatr Infect Dis J. 2004 Jul;23(7):650-5
Date
Jul-2004
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Alaska
Chi-Square Distribution
Child
Child, Preschool
Female
Hepatitis B - prevention & control
Hepatitis B Antibodies - immunology
Hepatitis B Surface Antigens - immunology
Hepatitis B Vaccines - immunology
Humans
Immunization Schedule
Infant
Infant, Newborn
Longitudinal Studies
Male
Risk factors
Time Factors
Abstract
BACKGROUND: The duration of protection after hepatitis B vaccination of infants is unknown. METHODS: We determined antibody to hepatitis B surface antigen (anti-HBs) at 4-13 years of age in 363 low risk children who had been vaccinated starting at birth with hepatitis B vaccine. Those with nonprotective titers ( or = 10 mIU/mL) of anti-HBs at 9 and 13 years, respectively. Of those who did not have protective antibody titers, 61% (33 of 54) and 67% (8 of 12), respectively, responded to a booster dose. In children of HBsAg-positive mothers, 31% retained protective anti-HBs at 12 years, and 90% (9 of 10) with nonprotective titers responded to a booster. In low risk children initially receiving a recombinant vaccine, 12.5% (26 of 208) and none (0 of 36) retained protective anti-HBs titers at 5 and 7 years of age, respectively. Of those who did not have protective titers, 90% (120 of 134) and 91% (32 of 35), respectively, responded to a booster. CONCLUSIONS: Anti-HBs disappeared by 5 years of age in most children who were vaccinated with hepatitis B vaccine from birth. Although most children showed immunologic memory, one-third failed to demonstrate an anamnestic response to a booster dose. Additional long term studies of low risk infants are needed to determine duration of protection and the necessity for or timing of booster doses.
PubMed ID
15247604 View in PubMed
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Evaluation of the effectiveness of immunization delivery methods.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature217823
Source
Can J Public Health. 1994 Jul-Aug;85 Suppl 1:S14-30
Publication Type
Article
Author
T W Gyorkos
T N Tannenbaum
M. Abrahamowicz
L. Bédard
J. Carsley
E D Franco
G. Delage
M A Miller
D L Lamping
S A Grover
Author Affiliation
Division of Clinical Epidemiology, Montreal General Hospital, Montreal, Quebec.
Source
Can J Public Health. 1994 Jul-Aug;85 Suppl 1:S14-30
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adolescent
Adult
Aged
Canada
Child
Child, Preschool
Diphtheria-Tetanus-Pertussis Vaccine
Female
Hepatitis B - prevention & control
Humans
Immunization Programs - standards
Infant
Influenza, Human - prevention & control
Male
Measles - prevention & control
Middle Aged
Mumps - prevention & control
Pneumococcal Infections - prevention & control
Program Evaluation
Rubella - prevention & control
Abstract
Scientific evidence documenting the effectiveness of immunization delivery methods was summarized using the generic approach developed by the Community Health Practice Guidelines Working Group. The delivery methods examined were those for the adult and childhood vaccines of influenza, pneumococcal infection, hepatitis B, measles-mumps-rubella and diphtheria-pertussis-tetanus-polio. Based on a critical appraisal of 54 eligible comparative studies, the effects of different interventions were obtained and pooled effects were calculated for delivery methods oriented to the client, the provider and the system. The results indicate those interventions found to be most effective for each vaccine. This review of the scientific evidence of the effectiveness of immunization delivery methods provides a base for policy development and assists in the planning of resource allocation.
PubMed ID
7987755 View in PubMed
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[Hepatitis B outbreak in a day care center affected several families. It could have been prevented by vaccination of all children]

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature32136
Source
Lakartidningen. 2001 May 9;98(19):2337-8, 2341-2
Publication Type
Article
Date
May-9-2001
Author
K A Broholm
L. Sjödin
I. Backlund
B. Johansson
H. Norder
L. Magnius
Author Affiliation
Ersboda vårdcentral, Umeå. Karlaxel.broholm.lt@vll.se
Source
Lakartidningen. 2001 May 9;98(19):2337-8, 2341-2
Date
May-9-2001
Language
Swedish
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Child Day Care Centers
Child, Preschool
Cost of Illness
Disease Outbreaks
English Abstract
Hepatitis B - prevention & control - transmission
Hepatitis B vaccines - administration & dosage
Humans
Infant
Somalia - ethnology
Sweden - epidemiology
Abstract
An outbreak of hepatitis B originating in a family day nursery affected several children with Somali background. The transmission chain was confirmed by sequence analysis of the S gene. In Africa hepatitis B is often spread horizontally among children of pre-school age, a pattern of transmission that was retained in this outbreak. To limit the outbreak 126 children in the nursery and 50 members of staff had to be vaccinated. The total cost for this intervention was estimated to about 300,000 SEK. Considering the great number of immigrants in Sweden from areas highly endemic for hepatitis B the inclusion of vaccination in the general child immunisation program seems to be the most cost effective measure for long term prevention not only of hepatitis B transmission among children but also of venereal spread in early adulthood.
PubMed ID
11402989 View in PubMed
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Increases in levels of antibody to hepatitis B surface antigen in an immunized population.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature5564
Source
Clin Infect Dis. 1998 Apr;26(4):933-7
Publication Type
Article
Date
Apr-1998
Author
L R Bulkow
R B Wainwright
B J McMahon
A J Parkinson
Author Affiliation
Arctic Investigations Program, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Anchorage, Alaska.
Source
Clin Infect Dis. 1998 Apr;26(4):933-7
Date
Apr-1998
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adolescent
Adult
Child
Child, Preschool
Cohort Studies
Female
Follow-Up Studies
Hepatitis B - prevention & control
Hepatitis B Antibodies - blood
Hepatitis B Surface Antigens - immunology
Humans
Immunization
Male
Population
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Abstract
Hepatitis B vaccine is effective in preventing infection with hepatitis B virus (HBV), but its duration of protection is unknown. To examine the effect of exposure to HBV on an immunized population, data were analyzed from a cohort of Alaska Natives who were immunized and then followed up annually for 10 years. A boost in antibody to hepatitis B surface antigen (anti-HBs) was defined as a fourfold rise in levels to > or = 20 mIU/mL that was not accompanied by the presence of antibody to hepatitis B core antigen or attributable to interim vaccination. During 10 years of follow-up, 8.2% of 1,595 vaccines had boosts in anti-HBs. Persons with boosts did not differ significantly from those without boosts in terms of age, gender, village, initial level of anti-HBs, or level of anti-HBs before the boost. These results underscore the continued exposure to HBV among vaccinees and the continued protection against disease that the vaccine provides.
PubMed ID
9564478 View in PubMed
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Parents' attitudes towards hepatitis B vaccination for their children. A survey comparing paper and web questionnaires, Sweden 2005.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature77664
Source
BMC Public Health. 2007;7:86
Publication Type
Article
Date
2007
Author
Dannetun Eva
Tegnell Anders
Giesecke Johan
Author Affiliation
Department of Communicable Disease Control, Landstinget i Ostergötland, Linköping, Sweden. eva.dannetun@lio.se
Source
BMC Public Health. 2007;7:86
Date
2007
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adult
Child
Child Health Services - utilization
Child, Preschool
Correspondence
Cross-Sectional Studies
Female
Health Care Surveys - methods
Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice
Hepatitis B - prevention & control
Hepatitis B vaccines - administration & dosage
Humans
Internet
Male
Parents - psychology
Pilot Projects
Questionnaires
Sweden
Abstract
BACKGROUND: The World Health Organisation, WHO, recommends that most countries should vaccinate all children against hepatitis B. Sweden has chosen not to do so, but the issue is reassessed regularly. The objective of this survey was to assess knowledge and attitudes towards hepatitis B vaccine for children among parents living in Sweden, and to compare distribution of responses and response rate between parents answering a postal questionnaire and those responding via the Internet. METHODS: A population-based cross-sectional survey, where the sampling frame consisted of all parents to a child born 2002 living in Sweden. Two independent samples of 1001 parents in each sample were drawn. All parents were contacted by postal mail. The parents in the first sample were invited to participate by answering a paper questionnaire. The parents in the second sample were given an individual user name along with a password, and asked to log on to the Internet to answer an identical electronic questionnaire. RESULTS: A total of 1229 questionnaires were analysed. The overall response rate for paper questionnaires was 55%, and 15% for the web version. Knowledge of the disease hepatitis B was overall high (90%). A higher degree of knowledge was seen among parents with education beyond high school (p = 0.001). This group of parents also had a higher tendency to reply via the Internet (p = 0.001). The willingness to accept hepatitis B vaccine for their child was correlated to the acceptance of the present childhood vaccination programme (p = 0.001). CONCLUSION: The results reveal a high level of knowledge of the disease and a positive attitude to having their children vaccinated. This study also displays that the conventional postal method of surveying still delivers a higher response rate than a web-based survey.
PubMed ID
17511891 View in PubMed
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Public health response to large influx of asylum seekers: implementation and timing of infectious disease screening.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature295462
Source
BMC Public Health. 2018 Sep 24; 18(1):1139
Publication Type
Journal Article
Date
Sep-24-2018
Author
Paula Tiittala
Karolina Tuomisto
Taneli Puumalainen
Outi Lyytikäinen
Jukka Ollgren
Olli Snellman
Otto Helve
Author Affiliation
Doctoral Programme for Population Health, University of Helsinki, Helsinki, Finland. paula.tiittala@thl.fi.
Source
BMC Public Health. 2018 Sep 24; 18(1):1139
Date
Sep-24-2018
Language
English
Publication Type
Journal Article
Keywords
Adolescent
Adult
Aged
Child
Child, Preschool
Communicable disease control
Female
Finland
HIV Infections - prevention & control
Hepatitis B - prevention & control
Humans
Infant
Infant, Newborn
Male
Mass Screening - organization & administration - statistics & numerical data
Middle Aged
Public Health Practice
Refugees - statistics & numerical data
Risk assessment
Syphilis - prevention & control
Time Factors
Tuberculosis, Pulmonary - prevention & control
Young Adult
Abstract
Infectious disease screening of migrants at increased risk is a feature of national infection prevention and control measures. Asylum seekers in Finland are offered screening of tuberculosis (TB), hepatitis B, human immunodeficiency virus infection (HIV) and syphilis based on individual risk assessment. We aimed to evaluate the public health response to a large influx of asylum seekers to Finland in 2015-2016 with respect to national guidelines on initial health services and infectious disease screening.
We used immigration and healthcare procurement data for all 38,134 asylum seekers to Finland during 2015-2016 to assess the implementation, timing and yields of infectious disease screening.
The coverage of pulmonary TB screening was 71.6% [95% CI 71.1-72.0%] and that of hepatitis B, HIV or syphilis 60.6% [60.1-61.1%] among those eligible for screening. The estimated average delay from arrival to pulmonary TB screening was 74 days for adults and 43 days for children. Delay to hepatitis B, HIV and syphilis screening was 91 days for adults and 47 days for children. The seroprevalence of hepatitis B surface antigen positivity was 1.4% [95% CI 1.3-1.6%], HIV 0.3% [95% CI 0.1-0.4%] and Treponema pallidum specific antibodies 1.0% [95% CI 0.8-1.1%]. Data did not allow assessment of yields of pulmonary TB screening.
Up to one third  of asylum seekers were not reached by screening and screenings were delayed from target timeframes. Children, as a vulnerable population, were screened earlier than adults. To ensure higher screening coverage, infectious disease risks should be reassessed and screening completed at contacts to healthcare during the post-asylum phase of integration. The large influx of asylum seekers to Finland in 2015-2016 tested the country's public health preparedness. After action reviews of the public health response to the large migrant influx such as screening implementation can be used for evidence-based improvement of public health preparedness and guidelines for initial health services and infectious disease screening.
Notes
Cites: BMC Med Ethics. 2018 Mar 2;19(1):16 PMID 29499693
Cites: Trop Med Int Health. 2016 Feb;21(2):210-8 PMID 26610271
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Cites: Eur J Public Health. 2016 Feb;26(1):3-4 PMID 26839337
Cites: Lancet Infect Dis. 2018 Sep;18(9):e259-e271 PMID 29778396
Cites: Int J Public Health. 2018 Mar;63(2):233-239 PMID 28924741
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PubMed ID
30249224 View in PubMed
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Update: recommendations to prevent hepatitis B virus transmission--United States.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature5664
Source
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep. 1999 Jan 22;48(2):33-4
Publication Type
Article
Date
Jan-22-1999
Source
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep. 1999 Jan 22;48(2):33-4
Date
Jan-22-1999
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adolescent
Adult
Child
Child, Preschool
Hepatitis B - prevention & control
Hepatitis B vaccines - administration & dosage
Humans
Immunization Schedule
Infant
Infant, Newborn
Practice Guidelines
United States
Abstract
In October 1997, the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP) expanded its hepatitis B vaccination recommendations to include all unvaccinated children aged 0-18 years and made hepatitis B vaccine available through the Vaccines for Children program (VFC) for persons aged 0-18 years who are eligible for VFC. ACIP priorities for hepatitis B vaccination of children remain unchanged and include all infants; children in populations at high risk for hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection (e.g., Alaska Natives, Pacific Islanders, and children who reside in households of first-generation immigrants from countries where HBV infection is moderately or highly endemic); previously unvaccinated children aged 11-12 years; and older adolescents and adults in defined risk groups.
PubMed ID
9933127 View in PubMed
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8 records – page 1 of 1.