An attempt was made to evaluate the results of treatment for acute nontraumatic extremity ischaemia in Sweden during one year. A questionnaire was sent to all surgical units, and 61% replied. Of the total 586 evaluated cases, 497 were classified as embolism and 89 as acute thrombosis. Patient age strongly influenced results in both groups as regards limb salvage and mortality rates. The site of embolic occlusion also influenced mortality, with greatly heightened rate in aortic occlusion. Delay of operation for more than 12 hours after onset of symptoms was associated with increase in amputation rate and mortality. Adequate heparin therapy significantly improved results after embolectomy, but had no such effect after surgical treatment of thrombosis. The amputation rate was higher after acute thrombosis than after embolism. The authors conclude that patient age should be considered in comparisons between different case series of acute ischaemia, that embolus site and time of surgery are important determinants of mortality and amputation rate, and that heparin significantly improves results of embolectomy.
In 1998, the sale of vitamin K antagonists (VKA) in Denmark corresponded to the amount used for treatment of more than 20,000 patients for one year. This is more than three times more than ten years earlier. The reasons for the increasing use of VKA are new indications for permanent anticoagulant treatment, especially chronic atrial fibrillation and venous thromboembolism associated with permanent thromboembolic risk factors. The risk of bleeding is higher in the introductory phase of anticoagulant treatment than later on. It is now recommended to commence anticoagulant therapy without a loading dose. This seems to hasten a good estimate of the maintenance dose. The metabolism of VKA depends on a number of genetic and acquired factors. Knowledge of these factors is crucial for optimal regulation of the treatment, and it is important that patients at start of treatment are thoroughly informed about these factors in order to minimize the risk of complications.
The article focuses on the status of a natural anticoagulant antithrombin III in patients with acute viral myocarditis (AVM) and on modes of treatment thereof. It has been proved that there is a statistically significant correlation between a drop in concentration of antithrombin III and degree of severity of AVM. Convincing, statistically significant data have been obtained that antithrombin III gets increased in AVM patients undergoing complex therapy: in those patients running a mild course of the illness, a mild one presenting with elevated indices for homeostasis, a medium gravity course (diclofenac, heparin, thiotriasoline, quick-frozen plasma), and grave course as well (prednizolon, heparin, thiotriasoline, quick-frozen plasma), which fact can be taken account of in choosing a therapeutic regimen.
Data from randomized trials has demonstrated the superiority of bivalirudin to glycoprotein IIb/IIIa inhibitors plus heparin in patients undergoing primary percutaneous coronary intervention. Real-world performance of bivalirudin in primary percutaneous coronary intervention and the benefit of bivalirudin over heparin remain unknown in an era of routine dual antiplatelet therapy.
From July 2004 to December 2010, 2317 consecutive patients were indexed in the University of Ottawa Heart Institute ST-segment-elevation myocardial infarction registry. During this period 748 patients received bivalirudin, 699 patients received glycoprotein IIb/IIIa inhibitors, and 676 patients received unfractionated heparin alone. The primary outcome was the rate of noncoronary artery bypass graft related thrombolysis in myocardial infarction major bleeding. Bivalirudin significantly reduced the primary outcome compared with heparin plus glycoprotein IIb/IIIa inhibitors (2.7% versus 7.3%, adjusted OR 2.96, 95% CI: 1.61-5.45, P
Optimal adjunctive therapy in ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) patients treated with primary PCI (PPCI) remains a matter of debate. Our aim was to compare the efficacy and safety of bivalirudin to unfractionated heparin (UFH), with or without glycoprotein IIb/IIIa inhibitors (GPI) in a large real-world population, using data from the Swedish national registry, SWEDEHEART.
From 2008 to 2014 we identified 23,800 STEMI patients presenting within 12?hours from symptom onset treated with PPCI and UFH?±?GPI or bivalirudin±GPI. Primary outcomes included 30-day all-cause mortality and major in-hospital bleeding. Multivariable regression models and propensity score modelling were utilized to study adjusted association between treatment and outcome.
Treatment with UFH?±?GPI was associated with similar risk of 30-day mortality compared to bivalirudin±GPI (5.3% vs 5.5%, adjusted HR 0.94; 95% CI 0.82-1.07). The adjusted risk for 1-year mortality, 30-day and 1-year stent thrombosis and re-infarction did not differ significantly between UFH?±?GPI and bivalirudin±GPI. In contrast, treatment with UFH?±?GPI was associated with a significant higher risk of major in-hospital bleeding (adjusted OR 1.62; 95% CI 1.30-2.03). When including GPI use in the multivariable analysis, the difference was attenuated and no longer significant (adjusted OR 1.25; 95% CI 0.92-1.70).
Bivalirudin±GPI was associated with significantly lower risk for major inhospital bleeding but no significant difference in 30-day or one year mortality, stent thrombosis or re-infarction compared with UFH?±?GPI. The bleeding reduction associated with bivalirudin could be explained by the greater GPI use with UFH.
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the effect of subcutaneous heparin treatment on calcium homeostasis in pregnancy. DESIGN: A longitudinal case-control observational study. SETTING: Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Karolinska Hospital, Stockholm, Sweden. SUBJECTS: 36 pregnant women with previously verified thromboembolic complications and 23 healthy pregnant control women similar in age, parity, weight, and smoking habit. INTERVENTIONS: Thromboprophylaxis during pregnancy and 6 weeks post partum was given with subcutaneous heparin twice daily to the 36 women with a history of thromboembolic complications, 16 received an average dose of 24,500 IU/day and 20 a mean dose of 17,300 IU/day. Venous blood and urine samples were obtained every 4 weeks. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Serum concentrations of total calcium, ionized calcium, calcitonin and urinary calcium. RESULTS: Women on high-dose heparin treatment showed significantly higher concentrations of total and ionized calcium and of calcitonin in serum and significantly lower concentrations of calcium in urine than did 23 normal pregnant controls. The differences were most pronounced in the third trimester. The results obtained in the low-dose heparin group were between those in the high-dose and the control groups. At 8 weeks postpartum there were no significant differences between the heparin-treated women and the controls. No significant differences were found during pregnancy in haematocrit, liver or renal function, serum levels of albumin, phosphate, magnesium, alkaline phosphatase, parathyroid hormone or urinary cyclic AMP. CONCLUSIONS: Heparin treatment during pregnancy results in changes in calcium homeostasis and a dose-dependent response is suggested.
Canadian-American differences in the management of acute coronary syndromes in the GUSTO IIb trial: one-year follow-up of patients without ST-segment elevation. Global Use of Strategies to Open Occluded Coronary Arteries (GUSTO) II Investigators.
Little information exists concerning practice patterns between Canada and the United States in the management of myocardial infarction (MI) patients without ST-segment elevation and unstable angina.
We examined the practice patterns and 1-year outcomes of 2250 US and 922 Canadian patients without ST-elevation acute coronary syndromes in the Global Use of Strategies to Open Occluded Coronary Arteries (GUSTO) IIb trial. The US hospitals more commonly had on-site facilities for angiography and revascularization. These procedures were performed more often and sooner in the United States than Canada, whereas Canadian patients were more likely to undergo noninvasive stress testing. The length of initial hospital stay was 1 day longer for Canadian than US patients. Recurrent and refractory ischemia was more common in Canada. One-year mortality was comparable between the 2 countries. However, at 6 months, even after baseline differences were accounted for, the (re)MI rate was significantly higher in Canadian than US patients with unstable angina (8.8% versus 5.8%, P:=0.039), as was the composite rate of death or (re)MI (13.1% versus 9.1%, P:=0.016).
One-year mortality was comparable between Canada and the United States in both MI and unstable angina cohorts despite higher intervention rates in the United States. However, outcomes at 6 months among patients with unstable angina differed. Whereas more frequent coronary interventions were not associated with reduced recurrent MI or death among MI patients without ST elevation, they may favorably affect outcomes in patients with unstable angina.