Compare the prevalence of comorbidities in adults with and without asthma in Canada and investigate the association between comorbidities in patients with asthma and the occurrence of asthma symptoms or attacks.
Survey data from the 2005 Canadian Community Health Survey (CCHS) were analyzed. A total of 132,221 Canadians participated in the national survey; 10,089 adult respondents from 10 Canadian provinces and 3 territories reported having asthma. Analyses focused on 11 major chronic comorbidities.
Respondents with asthma were more likely to have comorbidities except cancer; 31% of respondents with asthma and comorbidities reported their health status to be fair or poor. For respondents with asthma, non-asthma chronic respiratory disease, mental illness, and allergy were significantly associated with having asthma symptoms or attacks.
Many Canadians with asthma report a high comorbidity burden. These patients will likely require more health services and more complex health management strategies. Comorbid conditions should be clearly identified with particular emphasis on management of mood disorders and anxiety because these conditions are likely to increase asthma symptomatology and may be unrecognized by clinicians.
An increasing number of elderly patients are undergoing ambulatory surgery. We examined whether ambulatory surgery carries a higher risk for the elderly than for younger patients.
A total of 17,638 consecutive ambulatory surgical patients were enrolled in a prospective cohort study during a three-year period. Preoperative, intraoperative, and postoperative information was collected. Twenty-seven percent of the enrolled patients were 65 yr or older. Incidence rates of intraoperative and postoperative adverse events among the elderly were compared with those among younger patients; we controlled for sex, ASA physical status, body mass index, type of surgery, and duration of procedure, using multiple logistic regression models.
Elderly patients had a higher incidence of any intraoperative event (adjusted odds ratio, 1.4; 99.7% confidence interval [CI], 1.0-2.0) and of intraoperative cardiovascular events (adjusted odds ratio, 2.0; 99.7% CI, 1.3-3.0). They also had a lower incidence of any postoperative event (adjusted odds ratio, 0.4; 99.7% CI, 0.3-0.6) and of postoperative pain (adjusted odds ratio, 0.2; 99.7% CI, 0.1-0.4), nausea and vomiting (adjusted odds ratio, 0.3; 99.7% CI, 0.1-0.6), and dizziness (adjusted odds ratio, 0.4; 99.7% CI, 0.2-1.0).
The risks reported do not constitute a contraindication for elderly patients to undergo ambulatory surgery but this population may require more careful intraoperative cardiovascular management.
Comment In: Can J Anaesth. 1999 Nov;46(11):109510566936
Comment In: Can J Anaesth. 1999 Apr;46(4):305-810232712
In this retrospective cohort of 165,188 singleton pregnancies and 44,674 multiple-fetal pregnancies in Canada from 1984 to 2000, we compared the incidence of maternal complications. Multiple gestation pregnancies were associated with significant increases in cardiac morbidity, haematologic morbidity, amniotic fluid embolus, pre-eclampsia, gestational diabetes, postpartum haemorrhage, prolonged hospital stay, the need for obstetric intervention, hysterectomy and blood transfusion. Multiple gestation pregnancies are associated with an increased risk of morbidity for the mother. This should be taken into consideration in antenatal care of these women.
To determine sex and age variations in hospital readmissions for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) associated with overall and cardiac comorbid conditions.
A one-year follow-up study was conducted for 108 726 COPD in-patients aged >or=40 years who were discharged alive after their first admission in the 1999-2000 fiscal year.
Within a year, 38 955 of the patients were readmitted to hospital for COPD. The incidence rate of COPD readmission was 49.1% per year. It was higher for men than women aged >or=70 years, but was almost the same for patients aged
This study assesses the relationship between the age of daily smoking initiation and the age at diagnosis of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), heart disease and rheumatoid arthritis.
The data are from the 2000/01 Canadian Community Health Survey (CCHS). The sample for the analysis consisted of 34,144 respondents aged 35 to 64 living in private households in the provinces and territories.
The life table approach was used to estimate the cumulative incidence of smoking-related disease. Cox proportional hazards regression models were used to estimate the relative risks of disease by the age when daily smoking began.
For both sexes, the younger the individuals were when they became daily smokers, the sooner they were diagnosed with COPD, heart disease or rheumatoid arthritis. Even when education, household income and number of cigarettes smoked per day were taken into account, adolescent starters were at increased risk of these diseases, compared with never-smokers.
A sociologic and medical study was undertaken of the incidence of rheumatic heart disease in an isolated Mennonite colony in Northern Alberta, Canada. A group of Métis in a nearby settlement was used as a control. A total of 1294 individuals were examined, and evidence of carditis was found in 42 Mennonites.This project is one of a series of student summer research programs sponsored by the Department of Community Medicine, University of Alberta, and supported by grants from the Provincial Department of Health during the past three summers.The students - medical and dental - receive in Edmonton a seven- to 10-day orientation and indoctrination course dealing with the sociological, anthropological and medical problems likely to be met with in the North. Research protocol and methodological techniques are prepared and devised with student participation. A minimum of supervision is given in the field to encourage the undergraduates to adapt and adjust to a changed environment. Student response to this type of learning experience has been most encouraging.
Cites: Public Health Rep. 1959 May;74(5):431-813658331
Earlier studies have reported socioeconomic differences in coronary heart disease incidence and mortality and in coronary treatment, but less is known about outcomes of care. We examined trends in income group differences in outcomes of coronary revascularizations among Finnish residents in 1998-2010.
First revascularizations for 45-84-year-old Finns were extracted from the Hospital Discharge Register in 1998-2009 and followed until 31 December 2010. Income was individually linked to them and adjusted for family size. We examined the risk of major adverse cardiac events (MACEs), coronary mortality and re-revascularization. We calculated age-standardized rates with direct method and Cox regression models.
Altogether 69 076 men and 27 498 women underwent revascularization during the study period. Among men [women] in the 1998 cohort, 41% [35%] suffered MACE during 29 days after the operation and 30% [28%] in the 2009 cohort. Myocardial infarction mortality within 1 year was 2% among both genders in both cohorts. Among men [women] 9% [14%] underwent revascularization within 1 year after the operation in 1998 and 12% [12%] in 2009. Controlling for age, co-morbidities, year, previous infarction and disease severity, an inverse income gradient was found in MACE incidence within 29 days and in coronary mortality. The excess MACE risk was 1.39 and excess mortality risk over 1.70 among both genders in the lowest income quintile. All income group differences remained stable from 1998 to 2010.
In health care, more attention should be paid to prevention of adverse outcomes among persons with low socioeconomic position undergoing revascularization.
Both clinical and epidemiologic studies have shown an association between atherosclerotic changes in the aorta or lumbar arteries and lumbar disc degeneration. However, the association between atherosclerosis and sciatica remains unknown. The aim of this study was to investigate the association between carotid intima-media thickness and sciatica.
The target population consisted of people aged 45 to 74 years, who had participated in a Finnish nationwide population study during the period 2000 to 2001 and lived within 200 km of the 6 study clinics. Of the 1867 eligible subjects, 1386 (74%) were included in the study. We used high-resolution B-mode ultrasound imaging to measure intima-media thickness, and local or radiating low back pain was determined by a standard interview and clinical signs of sciatica through a physician's clinical examination.
Carotid intima-media thickness was associated with continuous radiating low back pain and with a positive unilateral clinical sign of sciatica among men only. After adjustment for potential confounders, each standard deviation (0.23 mm) increment in carotid intima-media thickness showed an odds ratio of 1.6 (95% confidence interval 1.1-2.3) for continuous radiating low back pain and 1.7 (95% confidence interval 1.3-2.1) for a positive unilateral clinical sign of sciatica. Carotid intima-media thickness was not associated with local low back pain.
Sciatica may be a manifestation of atherosclerosis, or both conditions may share common risk factors.