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Adverse drug reaction active surveillance: developing a national network in Canada's children's hospitals.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature150480
Source
Pharmacoepidemiol Drug Saf. 2009 Aug;18(8):713-21
Publication Type
Article
Date
Aug-2009
Author
Bc Carleton
Rl Poole
Ma Smith
Js Leeder
R. Ghannadan
Cjd Ross
Ms Phillips
Mr Hayden
Author Affiliation
Pharmaceutical Outcomes Programme, Children's and Women's Health Centre of British Columbia, Child and Family Research Institute, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada. bcarleton@popi.ubc.ca
Source
Pharmacoepidemiol Drug Saf. 2009 Aug;18(8):713-21
Date
Aug-2009
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adverse Drug Reaction Reporting Systems - organization & administration
Analgesics, Opioid - poisoning
Anthracyclines - adverse effects
Antibiotics, Antineoplastic - adverse effects
Breast Feeding
Canada - epidemiology
Case-Control Studies
Child
Child Health Services - organization & administration
Child, Preschool
Cisplatin - adverse effects
Codeine - poisoning
Drug Overdose - genetics - mortality
Female
Genetic markers
Hearing Loss - chemically induced
Heart Diseases - chemically induced
Hospitals, Pediatric - organization & administration
Humans
Infant
Infant, Newborn
National health programs - organization & administration
Pharmacogenetics
Program Development
Time Factors
Abstract
Adverse drug reactions (ADRs) rank as the fifth leading cause of death in the western world. The nature and scope of these ADRs in children are not predictable based on post market surveillance reports that rely heavily on adult drug experience. The genotype-specific approaches to therapy in childhood (GATC) national ADR network was established to identify specific ADRs and to improve drug safety through identification of predictive genomic biomarkers of drug risk.
GATC set out to establish a national network of trained surveillance clinicians in pediatric hospitals across Canada. Surveillance clinicians identified, enrolled, and collected clinical data and biological samples from ADR cases and controls. Surveillance was targeted to three ADRs: anthracycline-induced cardiotoxicity, cisplatin-induced hearing impairment, and codeine-induced mortality in breastfed infants.
The initial surveillance site was established in September 2005, with 10 sites fully operational by 2008. In 3 years, GATC enrolled 1836 ADR cases and 13188 controls. Target numbers were achieved for anthracycline-induced cardiotoxicity. Modified target numbers were nearly attained for cisplatin-induced hearing impairment. Codeine-induced infant mortality in a breastfed infant was discovered by GATC investigators. A case-control study was subsequently conducted.
GATC has demonstrated a model of active and targeted surveillance that builds an important step toward the goal of personalized medicine for children. Effective communication, site-specific solutions and long-term sustainability across the network are critical to maintain participation and productivity. GATC may provide a framework of ADR surveillance that can be adapted by other countries and healthcare systems.
PubMed ID
19507171 View in PubMed
Less detail

Adverse events in elderly users of antipsychotic pharmacotherapy in the province of Manitoba: a retrospective cohort study.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature117651
Source
J Clin Psychopharmacol. 2013 Feb;33(1):24-30
Publication Type
Article
Date
Feb-2013
Author
Irina Vasilyeva
Robert G Biscontri
Murray W Enns
Colleen J Metge
Silvia Alessi-Severini
Author Affiliation
University of Manitoba, Winnipeg, Manitoba, Canada.
Source
J Clin Psychopharmacol. 2013 Feb;33(1):24-30
Date
Feb-2013
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adverse Drug Reaction Reporting Systems
Age Factors
Aged
Aged, 80 and over
Antipsychotic Agents - adverse effects
Arrhythmias, Cardiac - chemically induced
Cerebrovascular Disorders - chemically induced - mortality
Female
Heart Diseases - chemically induced - mortality
Heart Failure - chemically induced
Humans
Incidence
Male
Manitoba
Myocardial Infarction - chemically induced
Proportional Hazards Models
Retrospective Studies
Risk assessment
Risk factors
Time Factors
Abstract
Antipsychotic medications have been widely used in elderly patients for treatment of a variety of diagnoses. The aim of our study was to compare the incidence of cerebrovascular and cardiac events as well as mortality in elderly persons treated with second-generation antipsychotics (SGAs) with that of elderly persons treated with conventional first-generation agents (FGAs) in the province of Manitoba.
A population-based retrospective cohort study of all residents of Manitoba aged 65 and older, who were dispensed antipsychotic medications for the first time during the period from April 1, 2000, to March 31, 2007, was conducted using Manitoba Health administrative databases. Cox proportional hazards models were used to compare risks of adverse events in FGA and SGA users.
After controlling for potential confounders (demographics, comorbidity, and medication use), SGA use was not associated with a significantly greater risk of cerebrovascular events, cardiac arrhythmia, and congestive heart failure compared to FGA use (adjusted hazard ratios [HR], respectively: 1.136; 95% CI, 0.961-1.344; 0.865; 95% CI, 0.336-2.232; 1.127, 95% CI, 0.902-1.409). Second-generation antipsychotics users were found to be at a lower risk of mortality (adjusted HR, 0.683; 95% CI, 0.577-0.809), but at a higher risk of myocardial infarction (adjusted HR, 1.614; 95% CI, 1.024-2.543) compared to FGA users.
Among elderly users of antipsychotic medications, the risk of cerebrovascular events, cardiac arrhythmia, and congestive heart failure was similar in FGA and SGA users. Whereas SGA users were at a higher risk of nonfatal myocardial infarction, the use of FGAs was associated with an increased risk of death. Antipsychotic pharmacotherapy in older persons needs to be chosen with careful consideration of all risks and benefits.
PubMed ID
23277238 View in PubMed
Less detail

Adverse reactions to H2-receptor antagonists in Denmark before and after transfer of cimetidine and ranitidine to over-the-counter status.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature55223
Source
Pharmacol Toxicol. 1991 Oct;69(4):253-8
Publication Type
Article
Date
Oct-1991
Author
M. Andersen
J S Schou
Author Affiliation
Danish Committee on Adverse Drug Reactions, National Board of Health, Brønshøj.
Source
Pharmacol Toxicol. 1991 Oct;69(4):253-8
Date
Oct-1991
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adverse Drug Reaction Reporting Systems
Aged
Anti-Ulcer Agents - adverse effects
Cimetidine - adverse effects
Comparative Study
Denmark - epidemiology
Drug Interactions
Drugs, Non-Prescription - adverse effects
Female
Gastrointestinal Diseases - chemically induced
Heart Diseases - chemically induced
Histamine H2 Antagonists - adverse effects
Humans
Male
Mental Disorders - chemically induced
Middle Aged
Nervous System Diseases - chemically induced
Ranitidine - adverse effects
Respiratory System - drug effects
Skin Diseases - chemically induced
Abstract
The H2-receptor antagonists cimetidine and ranitidine were transferred from prescription only to over-the-counter (OTC) status in Denmark on March 27, 1989. Reports to the Danish Committee on Adverse Drug Reactions, a voluntary reporting system, have been evaluated to detect possible changes in frequency and pattern of adverse drug reactions (ADRs) caused by the altered delivery status. From the introduction of cimetidine in 1977 and until March 31, 1990, the Committee received 494 reports of 612 suspected adverse reactions to anti-ulcer drugs. The H2-receptor antagonists (mainly cimetidine and ranitidine) were responsible for 548 (90%) of the ADRs. The study, which presents experience with these drugs from more than a decade and a total consumption corresponding to 65 million treatment days, confirms their excellent safety record. Serious reactions were rare, and when they occurred, reversible. During the first year with cimetidine and ranitidine available OTC no changes were seen in reporting frequency or ADR pattern which could be ascribed to OTC transfer. Only one ADR report concerning OTC cimetidine was received. This may be caused by several factors: the safety of these drugs, the fact that only very little was actually sold OTC, and a relatively low sensitivity of the voluntary reporting system.
PubMed ID
1683484 View in PubMed
Less detail

Air pollution as a cause of heart disease. Time for action.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature191008
Source
J Am Coll Cardiol. 2002 Mar 20;39(6):943-5
Publication Type
Article
Date
Mar-20-2002
Author
Stanton A Glantz
Source
J Am Coll Cardiol. 2002 Mar 20;39(6):943-5
Date
Mar-20-2002
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Air Pollutants - adverse effects
Animals
Canada - epidemiology
Environmental health
Heart Diseases - chemically induced
Humans
Risk factors
United States - epidemiology
Notes
Comment On: J Am Coll Cardiol. 2002 Mar 20;39(6):935-4211897432
PubMed ID
11897433 View in PubMed
Less detail

Amino-substituted 2-[2'-(dimethylamino)ethyl]-1,2-dihydro-3H- dibenz[de,h]isoquinoline-1,3-diones. Synthesis, antitumor activity, and quantitative structure--activity relationship.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature23276
Source
J Med Chem. 1995 Mar 17;38(6):983-93
Publication Type
Article
Date
Mar-17-1995
Author
S M Sami
R T Dorr
A M Sólyom
D S Alberts
W A Remers
Author Affiliation
Department of Pharmacology/Toxicology, University of Arizona, Tucson 85721.
Source
J Med Chem. 1995 Mar 17;38(6):983-93
Date
Mar-17-1995
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Animals
Antineoplastic Agents - chemical synthesis - pharmacology - toxicity
Cattle
Colonic Neoplasms - drug therapy
Comparative Study
DNA - metabolism
Doxorubicin - pharmacology - toxicity
Heart Diseases - chemically induced
Humans
Imides - pharmacology - toxicity
Isoquinolines - chemical synthesis - pharmacology - toxicity
Leukemia P388 - drug therapy
Male
Mice
Mice, Inbred DBA
Mitoxantrone - pharmacology - toxicity
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.
Structure-Activity Relationship
Tumor Cells, Cultured
Abstract
Sets of 2-[2-(dimethylamino)ethyl]-1,2-dihydro-3H- dibenz[de,h]isoquinoline-1,3-diones with amino and actylamino groups at each of the eight positions on the anthracene nucleus were synthesized from appropriately substituted anthracenes. Their evaluation in in vitro antitumor and cardiotoxicity assays revealed a very strong dependence of potency on the position of substitution. Certain compounds, including the 4-, 5-, 7-, and 9-amino derivatives, showed significantly higher potency than the unsubstituted parent compound, azonafide. Among them, 7-aminoazonafide had low cardiotoxicity relative to cytotoxicity. In general, the acetylamino analogues were less potent than the amino derivatives against tumor cells and neonatal rat heart myocytes; however, 5-(acetylamino)azonafide was highly cardiotoxic. 9-Aminoazonafide was more efficacious than azonafide or amonafide against P388 leukemia in mice. Statistically significant correlations were made between the ability of amino analogues to increase the transition melt temperature (delta Tm) of DNA and their potency against solid tumors, leukemia cells, or cardiac myocytes.
PubMed ID
7699715 View in PubMed
Less detail

Associations between ambient particulate sulfate and admissions to Ontario hospitals for cardiac and respiratory diseases.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature214790
Source
Am J Epidemiol. 1995 Jul 1;142(1):15-22
Publication Type
Article
Date
Jul-1-1995
Author
R T Burnett
R. Dales
D. Krewski
R. Vincent
T. Dann
J R Brook
Author Affiliation
Health Protection Branch, Health Canada, Tunney's Pasture, Ottawa, Ontario.
Source
Am J Epidemiol. 1995 Jul 1;142(1):15-22
Date
Jul-1-1995
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adult
Aged
Air Pollutants - adverse effects - analysis
Air Pollution - statistics & numerical data
Environmental Exposure - adverse effects - analysis
Female
Heart Diseases - chemically induced - epidemiology
Hospitalization - statistics & numerical data
Humans
Longitudinal Studies
Male
Middle Aged
Ontario - epidemiology
Ozone
Regression Analysis
Respiratory Tract Diseases - chemically induced - epidemiology
Seasons
Sulfates - adverse effects - analysis
Abstract
The association of daily cardiac and respiratory admissions to 168 acute care hospitals in Ontario, Canada, with daily levels of particulate sulfates was examined over the 6-year period 1983-1988. Sulfate levels were recorded at nine monitoring stations in regions of southern and central Ontario spanned by three monitoring networks. A 13-micrograms/m3 increase in sulfates recorded on the day prior to admission (the 95th percentile) was associated with a 3.7% (p
PubMed ID
7785669 View in PubMed
Less detail

Beta-adrenoceptor blocker intoxication: epidemiological data. Prenalterol as an alternative in the treatment of cardiac dysfunction.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature12885
Source
Hum Toxicol. 1983 Apr;2(2):175-81
Publication Type
Article
Date
Apr-1983
Author
P. Kulling
L. Eleborg
H. Persson
Source
Hum Toxicol. 1983 Apr;2(2):175-81
Date
Apr-1983
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adrenergic beta-Antagonists - poisoning
Adult
Blood Pressure - drug effects
Heart Diseases - chemically induced - drug therapy
Heart Rate - drug effects
Hemodynamic Processes - drug effects
Humans
Male
Middle Aged
Practolol - analogs & derivatives - therapeutic use
Prenalterol
Propranolol - poisoning
Sweden
Time Factors
Abstract
1 During the three years 1978--1980 the Swedish Poison Information Centre received reports of 184 patients hospitalized due to beta-adrenoceptor blocker overdosage. Of the 35 patients who developed signs of severe cardiac dysfunction (HR less than 50 beats/min, systolic blood pressure less than 80 mm Hg), 23 had ingested propranolol, 10 metoprolol and 2 alprenolol. 2 The mean value of the defined daily doses (DDD) per 1000 inhabitants per day in Sweden during these years were 11.97 for propranolol, 8.02 for alprenolol and 7.74 for metoprolol. The incidence of severe poisoning due to alprenolol overdosage is lower than expected according to DDD. 3 During 1979 19 persons died from overdosage with beta-adrenoceptor blockers in Sweden: 15 due to propranolol (non-selective, lacks intrinsic sympathomimetic activity), 2 to metoprolol (cardioselective, lacks intrinsic sympathomimetic activity). These findings indicate that severe and even fatal poisoning may occur regardless of the type of beta-blocking agent. 4 The usefulness of prenalterol, a cardioselective beta-adrenoceptor partial agonist, in reversing unwanted cardiac effects of beta-adrenoceptor blocking agents is illustrated by two cases of massive propranolol intoxication (maximal plasma concentrations of propranolol 7.2 and 7.8 mumol/l respectively). Prenalterol in high doses (130 and 280 mg/24 h respectively) restored cardiac function.
PubMed ID
6134663 View in PubMed
Less detail

Bupropion (Zyban, sustained-release tablets): update.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature195667
Source
CMAJ. 2000 Jan 11;162(1):106-7, 110-1
Publication Type
Article
Date
Jan-11-2000

27 records – page 1 of 3.