The implementation, characteristics and utilisation of cardiac arrest teams (CATs) and medical emergency teams (METs) in Finland are unknown. We aimed to evaluate how guidelines on advanced in-hospital resuscitation have been translated to practice.
A cross-sectional postal survey including all public hospitals providing anaesthetic services.
Of the 55 hospitals, 51 (93%) participated in the study. All hospitals with intensive care units (university and central hospitals, n = 24) took part. In total, 88% of these hospitals (21/24) and 30% (8/27) of the small hospitals had CATs. Most hospitals with CATs (24/29) recorded team activations. A structured debriefing after a resuscitation attempt was organised in only one hospital. The median incidence of in-hospital cardiac arrest in Finland was 1.48 (Q1 = 0.93, Q3 = 1.93) per 1000 hospital admissions. METs had been implemented in 31% (16/51) of the hospitals. A physician participated in MET activation automatically in half (8/16) of the teams. Operating theatres (13/16), emergency departments (10/16) and paediatric wards (7/16) were the most common sites excluded from the METs' operational areas. The activation thresholds for vital signs varied between hospitals. The lower upper activation threshold for respiratory rate was associated with a higher MET activation rate. The national median MET activation rate was 2.3 (1.5, 4.8) per 1000 hospital admissions and 1.5 (0.96, 4.0) per every cardiac arrest.
Current guidelines emphasise the preventative actions on in-hospital cardiac arrest. Practices are changing accordingly but are still suboptimal especially in central and district hospitals. Unified guidelines on rapid response systems are required.
OBJECTIVE: Local anesthetic-induced cardiotoxicity remains a complication of regional anesthesia, with the potential to result in cardiac arrest refractory to resuscitation. Successful resuscitation using Intralipid (Baxter Pharmaceuticals by Fresenius Kabi, Uppsala, Sweden), has been reported in 2 patients with bupivacaine-induced cardiac arrest. CASE REPORT: We report another case for which Intralipid was used as part of a successful resuscitation in a patient with local anesthetic-induced cardiotoxicity. CONCLUSIONS: Early treatment with Intralipid may help prevent cardiac arrest and speed successful resuscitation efforts.
A system of seemingly unrelated regression equations is proposed for prognostic factor adjustment and subgroup analysis when comparing two groups in a cost-effectiveness analysis with censored data. Because of the induced dependent censoring on costs and quality-adjusted survival, inverse probability weighting is employed for parameter estimation. The method is illustrated with data from two recent examples using both survival time and quality-adjusted survival time as the measures of effectiveness.
BACKGROUND: The association between the interval between collapse and defibrillation and outcome is well described in out of hospital cardiac arrest but not as well in in-hospital cardiac arrest. We report the outcome among patients who suffered an in-hospital cardiac arrest and were found in ventricular fibrillation (VF) with the emphasis on the delay to defibrillation. METHODS AND RESULTS: In patients who suffered an in-hospital cardiac arrest at Sahlgrenska University Hospital in G?teborg between 1994 and 2002 there were 1.570 calls for the rescue team of which 71% had suffered a cardiac arrest. Among cardiac arrests 47% took place on monitored wards. The proportion of patients found in VF was 59% on wards with monitoring facilities and 45% on wards without (p12 min. On monitored wards, the survival was 63% if defibrillated 3 min after collapse (NS). The corresponding values for non-monitored wards were 72% and 35%, respectively (p=0.0003). Cerebral function among survivors at discharge appeared to be good among the majority of patients both in monitored and non monitored wards. CONCLUSION: If patients with in hospital VF were defibrillated early in both monitored and non monitored wards survival to hospital discharge was high. This highlights the importance of being prepared for the rapid defibrillation on wards without monitoring facilities.
The aim of this study was to provide insight into family members' experiences related to cardiac arrest. Data were collected through semi-structured interviews with 17 family members approximately 5-34 months after the cardiac arrest of a relative. As the focus was on the family members' experiences seen from a holistic perspective, content analysis was chosen for the study. When the event occurred to the patient, family members realized the need for assistance and managed to initiate first actions. When the emergency medical service arrived, family members responded to stress and forgot their own needs. When the staff took over at the hospital, family members not only received sympathy but also encountered professional distancing. Because their experiences vary widely, the encounter has to be developed through a comforting, sympathetic and respectful dialogue in consideration for individuals' preferences.