OBJECTIVE: Streptococcus pneumoniae (S. pneumoniae) causes significant mortality throughout the United States and greater mortality among American Indian/Alaska Natives. Vaccination reduces S. pneumoniae illness. We describe the methods used to achieve the Healthy People 2010 coverage rate goals for adult pneumococcal vaccine among those at high risk for severe disease in this population. METHODS: We implemented a pneumococcal vaccination project to bolster coverage followed by an ongoing multidisciplinary program. We used community, home, inpatient, and outpatient vaccinations without financial barriers together with data improvement, staff and patient education, standing orders, and electronic and printed vaccination reminders. We reviewed local and national coverage rates and queried our electronic database to determine coverage rates. RESULTS: In 2007, pneumococcal vaccination coverage rates among people > or = 65 years of age and among high-risk people aged 18-64 years were 96.0% and 61.2%, respectively, exceeding Healthy People 2010 goals. Government Performance and Results Act analyses reports revealed a 2.7-fold increase (36.0% to 98.0%) of coverage from 2000 to 2007 among people > or = 65 years of age at Whiteriver Service Unit in Whiteriver, Arizona. CONCLUSIONS: We achieved pneumococcal vaccination rates in targeted groups of an American Indian population that reached Healthy People 2010 goals and were higher than rates in other U.S. populations. Our program may be a useful model for other communities attempting to meet Healthy People 2010 goals.
To develop a framework for analysing the effectiveness of prospective assessment and to apply the framework to human impact assessments (HuIA) carried out in the Finnish Healthy Cities Network.
The framework was formed by synthesizing and developing the themes that emerged from the published literature on effectiveness. The research material consists of interviews with people who participated in the assessment process in the municipalities (19 interviews). The research material also included assessment documents, proceedings of working meetings, municipal policy documents, background material and project reports produced in the municipalities studied. The research datasets were examined by content analysis.
HuIA increased the decision-makers' awareness of effects and functioned as a tool for empowerment. The latter was apparent, for instance, in the social welfare and healthcare sector, finding a role for itself in decisively co-ordinating interdisciplinary work and actively seeking to alleviate identified negative effects. The assessment process also opened up the planning process, committed various actors to the decision, helped select the right alternative and promoted social learning.
From the viewpoint of preparation and decision-making, the effectiveness of a HuIA increases when assessment becomes a recurring process and an integral part of an organization's activities. Integration of an assessment into permanent structures or activities, such as drawing up programmes or preparing strategies, helps the results of the assessment to be seen more clearly. From the viewpoint of decision-making, it is also important to strengthen the decision-makers' expertise in prospective assessment. When the effectiveness of HuIA is looked at in a new way (i.e. from the viewpoint of goal achievement, decision-making or learning), a more comprehensive interpretation can be given.
In the Latin America and Caribbean region over 210 million people live below the poverty line. These impoverished and marginalized populations are heavily burdened with neglected communicable diseases. These diseases continue to enact a toll, not only on families and communities, but on the economically constrained countries themselves.
As national public health priorities, neglected communicable diseases typically maintain a low profile and are often left out when public health agendas are formulated. While many of the neglected diseases do not directly cause high rates of mortality, they contribute to an enormous rate of morbidity and a drastic reduction in income for the most poverty-stricken families and communities. The persistence of this "vicious cycle" between poverty and poor health demonstrates the importance of linking the activities of the health sector with those of other sectors such as education, housing, water and sanitation, labor, public works, transportation, agriculture, industry, and economic development.
The purpose of this paper is three fold. First, it focuses on a need for integrated "pro-poor" approaches and policies to be developed in order to more adequately address the multi-faceted nature of neglected diseases. This represents a move away from traditional disease-centered approaches to a holistic approach that looks at the overarching causes and mechanisms that influence the health and well being of communities. The second objective of the paper outlines the need for a specific strategy for addressing these diseases and offers several programmatic entry points in the context of broad public health measures involving multiple sectors. Finally, the paper presents several current Pan American Health Organization and other institutional initiatives that already document the importance of integrated, inter-programmatic, and inter-sectoral approaches. They provide the framework for a renewed effort toward the efficient use of resources and the development of a comprehensive integrated solution to neglected communicable diseases found in the context of poverty, and tailored to the needs of local communities.
Cites: Am J Clin Nutr. 2000 Apr;71(4):956-6110731503