Homelessness is a social condition increasing in frequency and severity across Canada. Interventions to end and prevent homelessness include effective case management in addition to an affordable housing provision. Little standardization exists for service providers to guide their decision making in developing and maintaining effective case management programs. The purpose of this 2-part article is to articulate dimensions of promising practice for case managers working in a "Housing First" context. Part 1 discusses research processes and findings and Part 2 articulates the 6 dimensions of quality.
Practice settings include community-based organizations that employ and support case managers whose primary role is moving people from homelessness into permanent supportive housing.
Six dimensions of promising practice are critically important to reducing barriers, improving sector collaboration, and ensuring that case managers have appropriate and effective training and support. Dimensions of promising practice are (1) collaboration and cooperation-a true team approach; (2) right matching of services-person-centered; (3) contextual case management-culture and flexibility; (4) the right kind of engagement-relationships and advocacy; (5) coordinated and well-managed system-ethics and communication; and (6) evaluation for success-support and training.
Effective, coordinated case management, in addition to permanent affordable housing has the potential to reduce a person's or family's homelessness permanently. Organizations and professionals working in this context have the opportunity to improve processes, reduce burnout, collaborate and standardize, and, most importantly, efficiently and permanently end someone's homelessness with the help of dimensions of quality for case management.
It was the aim to study orthodontic treatment experience and past and present perceived need for treatment in 30-year-old Danes who, at adolescence, had no access to organized orthodontic care. In order to identify the malocclusion traits which elicited treatment or need for treatment, the findings were related to the occurrence of various traits which had been registered in the same individuals 15 years earlier. From questionnaires (response rate 86%, n = 841) it appeared that 10% had received treatment and 20% perceived need for treatment either in childhood or at present. At adolescence, the subjects who had subsequently received treatment, displayed relatively high frequencies of ectopic eruption, anterior cross-bite, extreme maxillary overjet, deep bite, and crowding; among those who perceived need for treatment, extreme maxillary overjet, mandibular overjet and crowding were relatively prevalent.
The Sexual Information Clinic in Oslo was founded more than 20 years ago. The clinic is the largest family planning centre in Norway, treating 4,000-6,000 patients per year. In recent years the treatment of venereal diseases has become the major component of the daily work. The authors describe the different groups of patients who visit the clinic. The meanage of the patients is 21 years. The high number of legal abortions among younger women and the rising incidence of sexually transmitted diseases prove the continued existence of a need for family planning centres. The authors discuss the situation of family planning centres in Norway in general and stress the importance of their work. They argue that all venereal diseases should be treated free of charge.
BACKGROUND: Few studies have addressed physicians' home calls in Norway. The aim of this study is to analyse home calls during daytime in Oslo in relation to patients (age, sex, district), diagnoses, request procedures, and clinical outcome. METHODS AND MATERIAL: General practitioners in the City of Oslo emergency medical centre recorded their home calls during three months using a standardised form. RESULTS: Calls to 337 patients (mean age 70, median 77 years; two thirds females; seven to children below two years of age) were recorded. The home calls were requested by relatives (36%), the patients themselves (32%), community care nurses (11%), and nursing homes (7%). The assessments made by the operators of the medical emergency telephone were generally correct. Physicians reported 77% full and 20% partial match between reported and found medical problem. The physicians assessed that 22% of the patients would have been able to go and see a doctor. 39% of all patients were admitted to hospital, 34 % needed ambulance transportation. The admitting GPs received hospital reports only after 27% of admissions. INTERPRETATION: Access to acute home calls by a physician during daytime is a necessary function in an urban public health service.
Since 1967, 170 heroin addicts have used methadone-based maintenance therapy. The experimental programme, confined to the Uppsala Psychiatric Clinic, followed the Dole-Nyswander method. Evaluation of the results shows the therapy to be successful in reducing mortality and permanent disability rates in heroin users. In addition it was found that addicts included in the programme were more likely to achieve complete social rehabilitation. In spite of much criticism, the experiment was sufficiently successful to justify its continuation, though still within the limits and along the lines adopted in the past.