To determine the impact of a provincial choking prevention program (CPP) on the incidence of aerodigestive foreign body cases among children.
The CPP, including posters, pamphlets, an informative video, and annual participation in the Parents & Kids Fair, was launched throughout Quebec in October 1999. The incidence rates of aerodigestive foreign body cases prior to implementation (during 1997-1998) and subsequently (2000-2002) within the province and our tertiary care centre (Sainte-Justine Hospital) were compared by estimating incidence rate ratios (IRRs) and associated 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs).
No significant changes in the incidence of aerodigestive foreign body cases after program implementation were observed in our hospital (age-adjusted IRR 0.92, 95% CI 0.79-1.07). The provincial rates were higher after program implementation (age-adjusted IRR 1.15, 95% CI 1.05-1.25).
To influence choking prevention habits, modifications to the campaign are required. Strategies are discussed.
OBJECTIVE: To assess the efficacy of a school-based intervention programme to reduce the prevalence of overweight in 6 to 10-year-old children. DESIGN: Cluster-randomized, controlled study. SUBJECTS: A total of 3135 boys and girls in grades 1-4 were included in the study. METHODS: Ten schools were selected in Stockholm county area and randomized to intervention (n=5) and control (n=5) schools. Low-fat dairy products and whole-grain bread were promoted and all sweets and sweetened drinks were eliminated in intervention schools. Physical activity (PA) was aimed to increase by 30 min day(-1) during school time and sedentary behaviour restricted during after school care time. PA was measured by accelerometry. Eating habits at home were assessed by parental report. Eating disorders were evaluated by self-report. RESULTS: The prevalence of overweight and obesity decreased by 3.2% (from 20.3 to 17.1) in intervention schools compared with an increase of 2.8% (from 16.1 to 18.9) in control schools (P
A National Asthma Programme was undertaken in Finland from 1994 to 2004 to improve asthma care and prevent an increase in costs. The main goal was to lessen the burden of asthma to individuals and society.
The action programme focused on implementation of new knowledge, especially for primary care. The main premise underpinning the campaign was that asthma is an inflammatory disease and requires anti-inflammatory treatment from the outset. The key for implementation was an effective network of asthma-responsible professionals and development of a post hoc evaluation strategy. In 1997 Finnish pharmacies were included in the Pharmacy Programme and in 2002 a Childhood Asthma mini-Programme was launched.
The incidence of asthma is still increasing, but the burden of asthma has decreased considerably. The number of hospital days has fallen by 54% from 110 000 in 1993 to 51 000 in 2003, 69% in relation to the number of asthmatics (n = 135 363 and 207 757, respectively), with the trend still downwards. In 1993, 7212 patients of working age (9% of 80 133 asthmatics) received a disability pension from the Social Insurance Institution compared with 1741 in 2003 (1.5% of 116 067 asthmatics). The absolute decrease was 76%, and 83% in relation to the number of asthmatics. The increase in the cost of asthma (compensation for disability, drugs, hospital care, and outpatient doctor visits) ended: in 1993 the costs were 218 million euro which had fallen to 213.5 million euro in 2003. Costs per patient per year have decreased 36% (from 1611 euro to 1031 euro).
It is possible to reduce the morbidity of asthma and its impact on individuals as well as on society. Improvements would have taken place without the programme, but not of this magnitude.
Cites: Eur Respir J. 1999 Aug;14(2):288-9410515403
Cites: BMJ. 1996 Mar 23;312(7033):762-68605467
Cites: Allergy. 2005 Mar;60(3):283-9215679712
Cites: N Engl J Med. 2005 Apr 14;352(15):1519-2815829533
Cites: BMJ. 2005 May 21;330(7501):1186-715849204
Cites: Thorax. 2005 Jul;60(7):545-815994260
Cites: Eur Respir J. 2000 Feb;15(2):235-710706483
Cites: Respir Med. 2000 Apr;94(4):299-32710845429
Cites: CMAJ. 1999 Nov 30;161(11 Suppl):S1-6110906907
One in three young people use cannabis in Canada. Cannabis use can be associated with a variety of health problems which occur primarily among intensive/frequent users. Availability and effectiveness of conventional treatment for cannabis use is limited. While Brief Interventions (BIs) have been shown to result in short-term reductions of cannabis use risks or problems, few studies have assessed their longer-term effects. The present study examined 12-month follow-up outcomes for BIs in a cohort of young Canadian high-frequency cannabis users where select short-term effects (3 months) had previously been assessed and demonstrated.
N=134 frequent cannabis users were recruited from among university students in Toronto, randomized to either an oral or a written cannabis BI, or corresponding health controls, and assessed in-person at baseline, 3-months, and 12-months. N=72 (54%) of the original sample were retained for follow-up analyses at 12-months where reductions in 'deep inhalation/breathholding' (Q=13.1; p
A survey of public health nurses (PHNs) who work in official public health units in Ontario was undertaken to determine whether their perceptions of their roles and activities concurred with a 1990 Canadian Public Health Association report which describes the roles and qualifications of public health nursing in Canada. The survey questionnaire was completed by 1,849 PHNs in all 42 public health units (response rate = 85%). About one tenth of the PHNs reported no activity as a caregiver/service provider. Most PHNs reported being active in the roles of educator/consultant, social marketer, and facilitator/communicator/collaborator. The community developer, policy formulator, research/evaluator, and resource manager/planner/coordinator roles were less frequently performed, however, increased activities in such roles were expected in the future. Nurses said that they needed further preparation to perform the latter roles. These results have implications for deployment of PHNs as Ontario's health system shifts to community health and health promotion.
The effect of the 2005 British Columbia (BC) smoking cessation mass media campaign on a panel (N = 1,341) of 20-30-year-old smokers' attitudes is evaluated. The 5-week campaign consisted of posters, television, and radio ads about the health benefits of cessation. Small impacts on the panel's attitudes toward the adverse impacts of smoking were found, with greater impacts found for those who had no plans to quit smoking at the initial interview. As smokers with no plans to quit increasingly recognized the adverse impacts of smoking, they also increasingly agreed that they use smoking as a coping mechanism. Smokers with plans to quit at the initial interview already were well aware of smoking's adverse impacts. Respondents recalling the campaign poster, which presented a healthy alternative to smoking, decreased their perception of smoking as a coping mechanism and devalued their attachment to smoking. Evidence was found that media ad recall mediates unobserved predictors of attitudes toward smoking.