The Norwegian "Campaign Against Home Accidents" was launched nationwide during 1988 to 1991, with the goal of reducing the incidence of home accidents by 20%. The aim of the campaign was to urge primarily the municipal health services to form local accident prevention groups and to implement local measures for prevention of home accidents. On the basis of two surveys, after one year and at the end of the national campaign, an evaluation was carried out concerning the participation of the municipal health services in the campaign and the impact of the campaign on local accident prevention activities. The results indicate that the national campaign engaged the majority of the municipalities and stimulated local accident prevention work to some extent. Most local activities were health education measures, whereas environmental intervention were less commonly reported. Involvement in the campaign was the variable most related to level of accident prevention activities at the end of the campaign period. However, the relationship was only modest. Restricted economical resources, too little emphasis on environmental change, lack of political involvement and insufficient use of coalition partners at the community level are suggested as the major explanations for the limited effect of the campaign.
Over the past five years the Tanzanian-Norwegian AIDS Project (MUTAN) has assisted the National AIDS Control Programme in creating and testing innovative HIV/AIDS educational programmes. These programmes, designed to reach a variety of target groups, have been implemented throughout the Arusha and Kilimanjaro regions and include: public meetings, intensive courses, information centres, radio programmes and school-based programmes. A recent survey of 996 participants (15-54 years old) was designed to assess public exposure to HIV/AIDS information. A total of 72% of the participants reported having heard about AIDS on the radio, 74% having read about AIDS in newspapers, and 52% having heard about AIDS from a health worker during the previous month. Furthermore, 26% had listened to MUTAN's weekly radio programme at least once. 31% knew of MUTAN's information centres, and 15% had visited one of these centres. The results indicate that large proportion of the population is receiving in-depth HIV/AIDS information. It is recommended that future work concentrate on how to reach people with no or little formal education, young adults and women.
Peacekeepers are frequently exposed to dangerous, provoking, or humiliating situations and have limited possibilities to express the resulting anger and frustrations. Self-medication with alcohol and drugs to calm down may result. A representative sample (N = 888) of Norwegian United Nations veterans who served in South Lebanon completed a questionnaire regarding service-related stress and the role of alcohol in stress management. A total of 43.5% of the respondents reported that they had increased their consumption of alcohol during the mission. Overall, only a minority gave reasons such as tension, restlessness, anxiety, and stress to explain the increase. Respondents who had been exposed to the highest levels of stress, however, reported significantly more frequently these potentially pathological reasons for increased drinking. To prevent such outcomes, personnel need to be screened for risk reactions and to be educated in alternative stress management measures. Furthermore, management of both stress and the destructive use of alcohol is clearly a leadership issue.
A school-based social influences approach to alcohol education was tested among Norwegian 8th grade lower secondary school students. The goal of the programme was to delay onset and minimize involvement in use of alcohol among the participants. 15 schools were randomly assigned to peer-led education, teacher-led education or a control condition. The programme focused on the social and environmental influences to drink alcohol, and skills to resist those influences. It consisted of five lessons over two months. Baseline and post-test data measured alcohol-use, knowledge, attitudes, skills, friends' drinking, and intentions to drink alcohol in the future. Data were collected immediately prior to and following the educational programme. The data indicate that peer-led education appears to be efficacious in reducing alcohol use and intention to use alcohol. There was no intervention effect of the peer-led programme for knowledge, attitudes or skills. There was no intervention effect for the teacher-led education.
The interwar period was a time of comprehensive preventive health programmes in Norway. Physical exercise, nutritious diets, strict sleep regimens and better hygiene were at the centre of these efforts. A massive mobilisation of volunteers and professionals took place. The publication of House Maxims for Mothers and Children was part of this large-scale mobilisation, and consisted of ten posters with pithy health advice for hanging on the wall. Mothers were an important target group for health promotion.
The posters have previously received little attention in medical literature, but they can elucidate some features of life and the health propaganda of their time. We have used databases that provide access to newspapers, books and medical literature: Retriever, bokhylla.no, Oria, PubMed and Web of Science.
It is hard to quantify the effect of this popular movement when compared to political measures to improve living conditions. In any case, mortality rates fell, life expectancy increased and the dreaded communicable diseases were largely defeated. Special efforts were targeted at children, also with good results. Infant mortality fell and schoolchildren became healthier, stronger, taller and cleaner.
The line between social hygiene and general disciplining is blurred, for example the boundary between a healthy diet and bourgeois norms. The education of mothers and children also included a normative aspect that concerned good manners and control.
ErratumIn: Tidsskr Nor Laegeforen. 2018 Oct 31;138(19): PMID 30497256
When the community diagnosis was described for two islands, Vaerøy and Røst, in 1970-73 injuries were found to be the most common single diagnosis. During one year (1979-80) all the injured patients who contacted the district physician in the municipality of Vaerøy were recorded in order to study the aetiology of injuries. Based on the experience from this study, an injury prevention programme was designed for this local community. The campaign started in 1981. A follow-up study in 1981-83 evaluated the effect of the prevention campaign. Two years after the programme started, the occurrence of injuries had declined by 29 per cent.
This paper discusses how the validity of road safety evaluation studies can be assessed by analysing causal chains. A causal chain denotes the path through which a road safety measure influences the number of accidents. Two cases are examined. One involves chemical de-icing of roads (salting). The intended causal chain of this measure is: spread of salt --> removal of snow and ice from the road surface --> improved friction --> shorter stopping distance --> fewer accidents. A Norwegian study that evaluated the effects of salting on accident rate provides information that describes this causal chain. This information indicates that the study overestimated the effect of salting on accident rate, and suggests that this estimate is influenced by confounding variables the study did not control for. The other case involves a traffic club for children. The intended causal chain in this study was: join the club --> improve knowledge --> improve behaviour --> reduce accident rate. In this case, results are rather messy, which suggests that the observed difference in accident rate between members and non-members of the traffic club is not primarily attributable to membership in the club. The two cases show that by analysing causal chains, one may uncover confounding factors that were not adequately controlled in a study. Lack of control for confounding factors remains the most serious threat to the validity of road safety evaluation studies.