The Alaska mental health program is endowed with a 1-million-acre trust fund. A coalition of groups that make up the mental health constituency of the state united in a lawsuit to establish the trust. The history of this legacy, the struggle to realize its benefits, its current status, and some of its psychopolitical significance are discussed.
The article represents goals set in a Concept of long-term social and economic development of Russian Federation until 2020 ("Strategy 2020") on transfer to innovative socially oriented type of economic development and human potential advancement in Russia, analysis of contemporary state of work conditions and workers' safety, ways to solve problems on health care and protection for working population as a basis for competitiveness of Russian economy.
Legislative documents of Ukraine as well as manuals of international organizations dealing with state regulation and social guaranties in Health Care have been analyzed. The use of standards in oncology institution in Ukraine has been studied. It was established that there is discrepancy in standards being used, lack of financing directed to oncology institutions. Controversial points concerning theoretical aspects were found as follows: the regulation of negative figures and selection of the complex of diagnostic and treatment procedures. The requirements to branch standards and principles of standardization of medical care provided to oncological patients.
Orientation to priority utilization of economic and medical legal approaches to reformation of dental service is an obligatory condition for effective solution of the problems of Russian dentistry. The priority tasks are: creation of economic and legal models of a dental profession and improvement of its normative and legal basis; development and realization of general Russian and regional programs of transformation of state dental centers into other than state ones and privatization of dental institutions; practical reformation of economic mechanisms of dental service; development of methods for state regulation of dental activities during the transition period; determination of directions and choice of social measures to modify dentistry service; creation of a system of guarantee of high quality of dental care; improvement of legally-based professional protection of dentists.
An increasing number of long-term schizophrenic patients are discharged from hospitals and taken care of in the community. This change in tendency has both a professional and economical side. The beneficial outcome of community care is well established. The aim of this paper is to appraise the economical implications and possibilities of community care compared to standard hospital care. The price elasticity for mental health services is higher than for other medical services. The demand for mental health care can not be directly compared with the demand for other types of care. This is due to lack of information on what is defined as good quality treatment in care and to define who is the demander of mental health care. Due to lack of defined demand and externalities encountered in the care for psychiatric patients, psychiatric treatment must be seen as a good that warrants government involvement in the financing and delivery of the service. The number in need of community care is estimated to be 12 per 100,000. To find the allocative efficiency in spending of resources on mental health care, it is important to look for the right balance between hospital and community care. There is evidence to assume that community care is more cost effective than hospital-based care. This does not apply to the most disabled schizophrenic patients where the costs are higher and outcome is the same. It is important to measure the costs incurred to family and friends when the total costs of community care are calculated and to find technically efficient production. The literature indicates that the physician/non-physician ratio has been too high. There are reports of dis-economies of scale, but economies of scope might be apparent. There are strong arguments in favour of state provision of psychiatric care for schizophrenic patients most in need. Otherwise the mental health care sector must be regulated with incentives that serve the need of the patients and encourage the most cost-effective treatment. Due to the risk of opportunism, specific assets and bounded rationality contracting involving clinical services should be avoided.
The Indian Health Service (IHS), an agency within the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, was responsible for providing federal health services to 1.51 million American Indian and Alaska Natives in 2000. Several opportunities related to health care exist for the IHS: potential public and private collaborations, continuation of the Clinton Administration's legacy of meaningful tribal consultation, and increasing the numbers of American Indian physicians, nurses, and other health related professionals. Modifications in federal programs such as Medicare and Medicaid pose a serious threat to the IHS because the IHS relies on these programs to offset the overall lack of funding. This article provides a framework for identifying the ways in which the external environment affects and determines the IHS' strategic responses to ensure competitiveness within the U.S. health care market. Value chain analysis will be used to evaluate the competitive advantages and disadvantages of the current IHS internal environment.