University of Alberta Pulmonary Research Group, CIHR Institute of Aboriginal Peoples' Health, University of Alberta, 173 HMRC University of Alberta, Edmonton, AB T6G 2S2, Canada. email@example.com
Indigenous peoples across all the continents of the globe live with major gaps in health status and health outcomes associated with well-described social determinants of health, such as poverty and poor education. Indigenous peoples face additional health determinant issues associated with urbanization, isolation from traditional territories, and loss of cultural continuity. Indigenous children are particularly vulnerable as they grow up in isolation from their cultural and social roots and yet are also separated from the mainstream environment of their society. Programs to address these difficult health issues should be viewed as complex clinical interventions with health researchers, social scientists, and clinicians working together with Indigenous peoples to identify the most pressing needs and most appropriate and workable solutions that will result in effective policies and practices.
Division of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, University of Washington School of Medicine, P.O. Box 359300, Seattle, WA 98195, USA. firstname.lastname@example.org
After first discussing historical, community and epidemiologic perspectives pertaining to mental health problems of Indigenous youth and families, this article reviews available research data on behavioral and mental health interventions and the roles that Native and Indigenous research programs are serving. Given the legacy of transgenerational trauma experienced by Indigenous peoples, community-based research and treatment methods are essential for solving these problems. The primary care provider stands in a unique position within the community to offer a "coinvestigator spirit" to youth and families in the pursuit of improving behavioral health. Strategies are presented for using the research literature, and collaborating with communities and families to help solve behavioral and mental health problems.
Children from Indigenous populations experience more frequent, severe, and recurrent lower respiratory infections as infants and toddlers. The consequences of these infections are chronic lung disorders manifested by recurrent wheezing and chronic productive cough. These symptoms are aggravated more frequently by active and passive tobacco smoke exposure among Indigenous groups. Therapies for these symptoms, although not specific to children of Indigenous origins, are described as is the evidence for their use.
Youth-onset type 2 diabetes is a serious public health problem for Indigenous people throughout the world. This article reviews the epidemiology, disease burden, treatment, and challenges in achieving successful clinical management of this disorder in Indigenous youth. Screening criteria and the complications and comorbidities of type 2 diabetes are also reviewed.
Acute lower respiratory infections (ALRI) are the major cause of morbidity and mortality in young children worldwide. ALRIs are important indicators of the health disparities that persist between Indigenous and non-Indigenous children in developed countries. Bronchiolitis and pneumonia account for the majority of the ALRI burden. The epidemiology, diagnosis, and management of these diseases in Indigenous children are discussed. In comparison with non-Indigenous children in developing countries they have higher rates of disease, more complications, and their management is influenced by several unique factors including the epidemiology of disease and, in some remote regions, constraints on hospital referral and access to highly trained staff. The prevention of repeat infections and the early detection and management of chronic lung disease is critical to the long-term respiratory and overall health of these children.