One in three young people use cannabis in Canada. Cannabis use can be associated with a variety of health problems which occur primarily among intensive/frequent users. Availability and effectiveness of conventional treatment for cannabis use is limited. While Brief Interventions (BIs) have been shown to result in short-term reductions of cannabis use risks or problems, few studies have assessed their longer-term effects. The present study examined 12-month follow-up outcomes for BIs in a cohort of young Canadian high-frequency cannabis users where select short-term effects (3 months) had previously been assessed and demonstrated.
N=134 frequent cannabis users were recruited from among university students in Toronto, randomized to either an oral or a written cannabis BI, or corresponding health controls, and assessed in-person at baseline, 3-months, and 12-months. N=72 (54%) of the original sample were retained for follow-up analyses at 12-months where reductions in 'deep inhalation/breathholding' (Q=13.1; p
The objective of this study was to evaluate the impact of the 2005 British Columbia Ministry of Health Smoking Cessation Mass Media Campaign on short-term smoking behavior.
National cross-sectional data are used with a quasi-experimental approach to test the impact of the campaign.
Findings indicate that prevalence and average number of cigarettes smoked per day deviated upward from trend for the rest of Canada (P = .08; P = .01) but not for British Columbia. They also indicate that British Columbia smokers in lower risk groups reduced their average daily consumption of cigarettes over and above the 1999-2004 trend (-2.23; P = .10), whereas smokers in the rest of Canada did not, and that British Columbia smokers in high-risk groups did not increase their average daily consumption of cigarettes over and above the 1999-2004 trend, whereas smokers in the rest of Canada did (2.97; P = .01).
The overall poorer performance of high-risk groups is attributed to high exposure to cigarette smoking, which reduces a smoker's chances of successful cessation. In particular, high-risk groups are by definition more likely to be exposed to smoking by peers, but are also less likely to work in workplaces with smoking bans, which are shown to have a substantial impact on prevalence. Results suggest that for mass media campaigns to be more effective with high-risk groups, they need to be combined with other incentives, and that more prolonged interventions should be considered.
The acceptance and support of breastfeeding in public venues can influence breastfeeding practices and, ultimately, the health of the population.
The primary aim of this study was to investigate whether posters targeted at the general public could improve acceptability of breastfeeding in public places.
A convenience sample of 255 participants was surveyed at shopping centers in 2 rural communities of Newfoundland and Labrador. Experimentally, questions were posed to 117 participants pre- and post-exposure to 2 specific posters designed to promote public acceptance of breastfeeding in public.
Initially, we surveyed that only 51.9% of participants indicated that they were comfortable with a woman breastfeeding anywhere in public. However, context played a role, whereby a doctor's office (84.5%) or park (81.4%) were the most acceptable public places for breastfeeding, but least acceptable was a business office environment (66.7%). Of participants, 35.4% indicated previously viewing specific posters. We used a visual analog scale to test poster viewing on the acceptability of public breastfeeding in the context of a doctor's office and a restaurant. Results of pre- versus post-viewing of the promotional posters indicated significant improvements in both scenarios: in a doctor's office (P = .035) and in a restaurant (P = .021).
Nearly 50% of the surveyed population indicated discomfort with a mother breastfeeding in public. Both cross-sectional and interventional evidence showed that posters significantly improved the reported level of comfort toward seeing breastfeeding in public.
The workplace health promotion program, POWERPLAY, was developed, implemented, and comprehensively evaluated among men working in four male-dominated worksites in northern British Columbia, Canada. The purpose of this study was to explore the POWERPLAY program's acceptability and gather recommendations for program refinement. The mixed-method study included end-of-program survey data collected from 103 male POWERPLAY program participants, interviews with workplace leads, and field notes recorded during program implementation. Data analyses involved descriptive statistics for quantitative data and inductive analysis of open-ended questions and qualitative data. Among participants, 70 (69%) reported being satisfied with the program, 51 (51%) perceived the program to be tailored for northern men, 56 (62%) believed the handouts provided useful information, and 75 (74%) would recommend this program to other men. The findings also highlight program implementation experiences with respect to employee engagement, feedback, and recommendations for future delivery. The POWERPLAY program provides an acceptable approach for health promotion that can serve as a model for advancing men's health in other contexts.
Injection drug users (IDU) often experience barriers to conventional health-care services, and consequently might rely on acute and emergency services. This study sought to investigate IDU perspectives regarding the impact of supervised injection facility (SIF) use on access to health-care services.
Semi-structured qualitative interviews were conducted with 50 Vancouver-based IDU participating in the Scientific Evaluation of Supervised Injecting cohort. Audio-recorded interviews elicited IDU perspectives regarding the impact of SIF use on access to health and social services. Interviews were transcribed verbatim and a thematic analysis was conducted.
Fifty IDU, including 21 women, participated in this study. IDU narratives indicate that the SIF serves to facilitate access to health care by providing much-needed care on-site and connects IDU to external services through referrals. Participants' perspectives suggest that the SIF has facilitated increased uptake of health and social services among IDU.
Although challenges related to access to care remain in many settings, SIF have potential to promote health by facilitating enhanced access to health-care and social services through a model of care that is accessible to high-risk IDU.
Health experts recommend daily step goals of 10,000 steps for adults and 12,000 steps for youths to achieve a healthy active living. This article reports the findings of a Canadian family project to investigate whether the recommended daily step goals are achievable in a real life setting, and suggests ways to increase the daily steps to meet the goal. The family project also provides an example to encourage more Canadians to conduct family projects on healthy living.
This is a pilot feasibility study. A Canadian family was recruited for the study, with 4 volunteers (father, mother, son and daughter). Each volunteer was asked to wear a pedometer and to record daily steps for three time periods of each day during a 2-month period. Both minimal routine steps, and additional steps from special non-routine activities, were recorded at work, school and home.
The mean number of daily steps from routine minimal daily activities for the family was 6685 steps in a day (16 hr, approx 400 steps/hr). There was thus a mean deficit of 4315 steps per day, or approximately 30,000 steps per week, from the goal (10,000 steps for adults; 12,000 steps for youths). Special activities that were found to effectively increase the steps above the routine level include: walking at brisk pace, grocery shopping, window shopping in a mall, going to an entertainment centre, and attending parties (such as to celebrate the holiday season and birthdays).
To increase our daily steps to meet the daily step goal, a new culture is recommended: "get off the chair". By definition, sitting on a chair precludes the opportunity to walk. We encourage people to get off the chair, to go shopping, and to go partying, as a practical and fun way to increase the daily steps. This paper is a call for increased physical activity to meet the daily step goal.
Physical activity in adolescence is promoted for its multi-dimensional health benefits. However, too intensive sports participation is associated with an increased injury risk. Our aim was to compare the occurrence of acute and overuse injuries in Finnish sports club members and non-members and to report training and competing habits associated with a higher injury risk in sports club members.
In this cross-sectional survey targeted at 14-16-year-old adolescents, a structured questionnaire was completed by 1077 sports club members and 812 non-members. The main outcome measures were self-reported acute and overuse injuries, their location and type.
At least one acute injury in the past year was reported by 44.0% of sports club members and 19.8% of non-members (P?
High rates of mental health problems, such as suicidal behaviours, among First Nations youth in Canada are a major public health concern. The Good Behavior Game (GBG) is a school-based intervention that provides a nurturing environment for children and has been shown to promote positive outcomes. PAX Good Behavior Game (PAX GBG) is an adaptation and enhancement of the GBG. While PAX GBG has been implemented in Indigenous communities, little research exists examining the cultural and contextual appropriateness and effectiveness of the intervention in First Nations communities.
The present paper describes a protocol of the mixed-methods approach guided by an Indigenous ethical engagement model adopted to implement, adapt and evaluate PAX GBG in First Nations communities in Manitoba, Canada. First, implementation outcomes (eg, acceptability, adoption) of PAX GBG will be evaluated using qualitative interviews with teachers, principals and community members from Swampy Cree Tribal Council (SCTC) communities. Second, by linking administrative databases to programme data from schools in 38 First Nations communities, we will compare PAX GBG and control groups to evaluate whether PAX GBG is associated with improved mental health and academic outcomes. Third, the qualitative results will help inform a cultural and contextual adaptation of PAX GBG called First Nations PAX (FN PAX). Fourth, FN PAX will be implemented in a few SCTC communities and evaluated using surveys and qualitative interviews followed by the remaining communities the subsequent year.
Ethical approval was obtained from the University of Manitoba Health Research Ethics Board and will be obtained from the Health Information Privacy Committee and respective data providers for the administrative database linkages. Dissemination and knowledge translation will include community and stakeholder engagement throughout the research process, reports and presentations for policymakers and community members, presentations at scientific conferences and journal publications.
Socioemotional selectivity theory postulates that, as people age, they prioritize emotionally meaningful goals. This study investigated whether these age differences in goals are reflected in how younger (aged 18-36, n = 111) and older adults (aged 62-86, n = 104) evaluated, remembered information from and were persuaded by health messages.
Participants were randomly assigned to read health pamphlets with identical factual information but emphasizing emotional or non-emotional goals.
Findings showed that health messages that emphasized emotional goals, but not those that emphasized future-oriented or neutral goals, were better remembered, were evaluated more positively and led to greater behavioral changes among older adults, but not younger adults.
These findings suggest that health messages targeting older adults may be more effective if they are framed in ways that emphasize love and caring.
A concise portrait of HIV and AIDS within the Aboriginal community is difficult to present. Just as there are different customs and traditions among tribes, so are there different ways by which this issue is being addressed. The response to HIV/AIDS in the Aboriginal community is the process of moving from an individual or personal perspective to an immediate and extended family approach through the community, nation or society, and finally to the greater picture, Mother Earth. We don't necessarily move through in this order, rather we go back and forth as the need arises. When we deal with HIV or AIDS, it is important to view how this will affect our whole life: physical, mental, emotional and spiritual aspects of ourselves as well as financial, psychosocial and other dimensions. The teachings and study of children, youth, adults and elders are also discussed. We recognize the work we do in this area now will be a tool for survival in the future.