The main aim of the Swedish Women's Peace reform in 1998 was to enhance criminal legal protection for women exposed to violence in heterosexual relationships and to promote gender equality. However, these ambitions risk being contravened in a masculinist criminal legal system. One problem concerns how the victim is constructed in criminal legal cases. The author argues that moral balancing and discourses of responsibility and guilt in Swedish cases constrain the agency possible for women and suggest that a more comprehensive policy in Sweden must be developed to include violent men, their agency, and their responsibility for the violence.
OBJECTIVES: We examined the extent to which adolescents in Norway have been exposed to tobacco marketing despite an existing ban, and whether exposure is related to their current smoking or expectations they will smoke in the future. METHODS: Questionnaires were administered to nationally representative systematic samples of Norwegian youths aged 13 to 15 years in 1990 (n = 4282) and 1995 (n = 4065). RESULTS: About half in each cohort reported exposure to marketing. Youths reporting exposure were significantly more likely to be current smokers and to expect to be smokers at 20 years of age, after control for important social influence predictors. CONCLUSIONS: Adolescents' current smoking and future smoking expectations are linked to marketing exposure even in limited settings, suggesting the need for comprehensive controls to eliminate the function of marketing in promoting adolescent smoking.
Aging in Sweden has been uniquely shaped by its history-most notably the long tradition of locally controlled services for older adults. We considered how local variations and local control shape the experience of aging in Sweden and organized the paper into 3 sections. First, we examine aging in Sweden along demography, economy, and housing. Next, we trace the origins and development of the Swedish welfare state to consider formal supports (service provision) and informal supports (caregiving and receipt of care). Finally, we direct researchers to additional data resources for understanding aging in Sweden in greater depth. Sweden was one of the first countries to experience rapid population aging. Quality of life for a majority of older Swedes is high. Local control permits a flexible and adaptive set of services and programs, where emphasis is placed on improving the quality and targeting of services that have already reached a plateau as a function of population and expenditures.
Cites: J Gerontol B Psychol Sci Soc Sci. 2002 May;57(3):S168-7611983743
Cites: Am J Epidemiol. 2002 Jun 15;155(12):1081-712048221
The contribution that alcohol has made to the large fluctuations in mortality in Russia in recent years is now widely recognized. An association between heavy drinking and Russia is part of popular culture. But what is the reality? This paper reviews the evidence on historical patterns of consumption in Russia, highlighting the difficulties of obtaining valid statistics during the Soviet period (1917-1991). It notes how the state, at various times, encouraged alcohol sales. By the early 1980s, the social cost of heavy drinking was becoming apparent. This led, in 1985, to the imposition of the wide-ranging and initially highly effective anti-alcohol campaign by Mikhail Gorbachev. The features of this campaign and of its subsequent collapse are described. In the 1990s, consumption of alcohol increased rapidly. There has, however, been a recent reduction in alcohol-related deaths. It is concluded that heavy drinking is not an inevitable feature of Russian life and that, as the state has done much to create the present problem, it also has a role to play in resolving it.
Using 1998 provincial survey data (n = 1,205), the authors examine responses to 7 items concerning public opinion on alcohol-related policy in Ontario. The purpose of the study is to get a sense of overall public opinion on certain topical policy-related measures and to see whether this opinion is predicted by demographic characteristics of respondents (sex, age and self-reported drinking pattern). Cross-tabulations of opinion items with demographic variables revealed strong majority support for the status quo with regard to number of liquor and beer stores, beer and liquor store hours, and prohibition of the sale of alcohol in corner stores. A somewhat less robust majority also supported the status quo for alcohol taxes and legal drinking age. Among the demographic groups, high-risk heavy drinkers stood out for their greater support of relaxation of controls and this finding was confirmed by means of logistic regression. The majority of all groups, except frequent bar-goers, liked the idea of warning labels on alcoholic beverage containers. The authors conclude that, according to these survey data, policy initiatives towards greater access to alcohol, such as extended liquor store hours and sale of alcohol in corner stores, are not mandated by the majority of the population of Ontario.
This article examines the political formulation and ideological solution of the Swedish drug problem in 1982-2000. How was the drug problem described in the Swedish parliament at the time? How serious was the problem and what solutions were proposed? What were the ideological implications of the problem description, and how was the general political and ideological solution formulated?
The empirical basis for the textual analysis consists of parliamentary bills, government bills and parliamentary records discussing the drug issue during the years 1982-2000.
In the prevailing spirit of consensus in the Swedish parliament at the time, both left-wing and right-wing parties portrayed drugs as a threat to the nation, people and the welfare state. Still, as the ideological dimension kept growing stronger, the drug question functioned even better as an arena for political discussions and ideological positions than in the 1970s.
Compared to previous decades, the problem description broadened during the 1980s and 1990s, and the drug problem could be used to support arguments on almost any topic. The drug problem became a highly politicized issue about whom or what to change when the individual and the society clashed, but also about what the individual and/or society should be changed into.
Healthcare in Europe is increasingly influenced by European Union (EU) regulation enacted to harmonise heterogeneous practices through common safety standards. In many instances directives on safety issues evade public debate because they are seen as merely 'technical matters'. In this paper I analyse the implications at a national level in Denmark of one such piece of legislation: the EU Tissues and Cells Directive. The analysis is based on participant observation, interviews and document analysis conducted in the period from May 2007 to June 2009. I follow translations of the Directive from the level of the EU text into national legislation and further into everyday practices. From a biopolitical perspective, I explore the implications of this so-called technical directive that appear necessary for policymakers and yet remain strangely detached from the everyday experiences of people for whom and on whom it is supposed to work. The Directive has serious implications for the allocation of funds, for patients and for healthcare professionals. These implications need to be discussed. Even more basically, the analysis points to a need for discussing what makes so-called technical directives necessary. This article is intended to facilitate this type of debate.
In summary, the Canadian health system is an outstanding success, as far as its consumers are concerned. Increasing costs are generally considered to be grounded in factors that could be, and are being, remedied. Health insurance also works very well for that segment of the mental health system that requires intervention by psychiatrists in office or general hospital practice. Unfortunately, certain decisions that were made during the development of the health insurance system have created obstacles to the provision of adequate services to the chronically mentally ill. However, these systemic ailments, which are now being addressed in most provinces, do not seem to have been fatal.