This paper presents the history of AIDS in Canada with special attention to epidemiology, public policy, and social commentary. The interest in medical history sparked by the epidemic is studied in relation to its impact on public health measures. Conversely, the impact of the disease itself on the history of medicine is examined. AIDS seems to have had a greater impact on history in Canada than history has had on the Canadian response to AIDS.
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The purpose of this annotated chronology is to help provide a framework for research into the history of the first five years of the AIDS epidemic in Canada but especially as it unfolded in Toronto, Canada. The chronological entries can be used to identify the order and relationship of particular themes, while the sources listed in the chronology can be used as points of reference for further investigations. This chronology is primarily derived from reports in key newspapers based in the Toronto region. Each chronological entry lists the sources which reported on the particular event.
To describe community-driven alcohol policy for 78, primarily First Nations, Métis and Inuit, communities in Canada's three northern territories (Yukon, Northwest Territories and Nunavut) between 1970 and 2008. This is a first step to understanding the policy-oriented prevention system that has evolved in these areas over time.
Regulatory data were compiled from Part II of the Territorial Gazette Indices and the Revised Statutes and Regulations of each territory. Regulations were categorized as open, restricted, prohibited or other.
The number of communities with some form of regulation has increased steadily over time with half of the sample communities adopting some form of regulation between 1970 and 2008. The use of prohibition as a policy choice peaked in 1980 but has remained relatively steady since that time. There has been a steady increase in the adoption of other kinds of restrictions. Communities with regulations tend to have smaller and younger populations, a greater percentage of people with First Nations, Métis or Inuit origin and are more geographically isolated than those with no regulation.
This is the first time alcohol control policies have been compiled and described for the Canadian north. The dataset records the collective energies being put into community problem solving and provides a means to interpret the prevalence of health and social problems linked to alcohol use in these communities over time.
As part of the thrust by Health and Welfare, Canada, to strengthen community health services, the National Health Research and Development Program commissioned a series of literature reviews. I undertook to review organizational models for community-based services, but said that this would be done in the context of the developing organization of the national health insurance program. With the help of colleagues I examined the literature from a number of different viewpoints. This article will present our findings on the development of policy and will trace the difficulties in making a shift towards providing more care in the community. We found that organization theories were helpful for explaining developments in the health service as a whole and the place of community-based services within it. We were able to use these theories to analyse efforts at restructuring. They provide explanations for the concurrent existence of policies of rationalization and cutbacks with policies of expansion in the area of health promotion.
The Scandinavian countries have been among the leading countries with regard to integration into society for persons with disabilities. This article focuses on two intimately related questions concerning the reform: 1) How did the normalization principle, as governmental policy, intend to improve the living-situation for people with disabilities? 2) How was the reform experienced by some disabled persons who attended compulsory school during its introduction? Our sources are: a) central government documents and reports concerning integration of mobility disabled persons in Norway and Sweden; b) 40 life history interviews with mobility disabled persons in Scandinavia born between 1955 and 1965. The interviews are theme centered upon experiences in education and work.
The health services of Norway have changed over the last century in tune with the development of society. The health services are not only the result of scientific and technological progress, but also a product of changes in prevailing political and social conditions and ideologies. Quality assessment and concern for the ethical basis of the health services ought to be given priority in the years to come.